These are the week 3 readings. After each reading, I’ve written some questions and notes for you to consider as you read the work and form your discussion points. I recommend that you keep on top of the readings, doing one each day rather than letting this rather significant reading load accumulate. However, discussion and the week 3 assignment are not “due” until 10 days after the end of Week 3 (on 13 June).
1. Theory and Practice in Policy Analysis, Chapter 13 – “Risk” is another area where people don’t always seem to act rationally. If we think about “risk to our lives”, it would make sense for people to act in ways that reduce that risk as much as possible (or maybe as much as they can afford). But we have observed that people do not actually do this: the same person that is afraid to fly on a plane might zoom around all day on a motorcycle without a helmet. We have learned that there seem to be features of a risk that make it more or less acceptable to people. And this raises more important questions, like whether we ought to be making decisions that reduce actual risks or making decisions that reduce the risks that are most concerning to people.
Questions to think about: What do experts and laypeople mean when they talk about risk? Is one group right and the other one wrong or is this just an issue of communication? What properties of a risk affect a person’s judgment of its magnitude? Should policy focus on reducing mathematical risk, perceived risk, or some combination of both?
2. Keeney, “Understanding Life-Threatening Risks” – This reading talks about risk and value of life, saying (I think) a lot of interesting things about the logic and perception of risk. Note especially the occasional mis-match between the logic of risk facts and the perception of risk.
Questions to think about: Is it ethical to talk about the “value of life” and put numbers on it? Why? Do all lives have the same value of life? What about people in different countries – should there be any difference? What about statistical versus identifiable fatalities – should there be a difference here? Is misperception of risk a form of irrationality or does it represent a more complex way of thinking about risks? Is it ok for people to have preferences about the types of risk that they take on, or should we compel them to minimize total risk?
3. Theory and Practice in Policy Analysis, Chapter 14 – This chapter is about “risk communication”, but the ideas here actually apply to all forms of communication to the public about complex topics. It starts with a simple but commonly misunderstood idea: the purpose of a good communication to the public (posters, emails, brochures, books, newscasts, etc) isn’t “to tell people a thing that they need to know”. Rather, the goal should be “to correct misunderstandings and tell them important things that they don’t already know”. The chapter also introduces a formal method that you can use to figure out what information fits that description.
Questions to think about: What is the goal of a good risk communication strategy? How should you decide what goes into a risk communication? What is the benefit of structured interviews? Do the lesson about risk communication here apply to communication about other topics?
4. Theory and Practice in Policy Analysis, Chapter 15 – We often act as if big organizations (governments, companies) make decisions the same way that individuals do. We say things like, “Why would the government decide to do that?”, which implies that the “government” is an entity that thinks about problems and makes choices the same way that we do. But a government is a big complicated system. Sure there is a person at the top that seems to be making decisions, but that person’s decisions are the result of the information they get from subordinates and the options that are presented, both of which are filtered and affected by the whole organization. Sometimes the “decisions” of big organizations don’t seem to make any sense, and there is a whole literature dedicated to understand how these organizations actually make decisions.
Questions to think about: How is an “organization” different from an individual? Are organizations rational, and if so in what ways are they rational? Why did Allison develop these three Models of decision making – why not just one? What is the Cyert and March idea of how a firm works and how is it different from a “rational” model? The chapter supplies a large variety of theories and models of how organizations “make decisions” or “operate” – which of these do you find to be most correct or incorrect? Are they all correct in different ways? What does all of this have to do with policy design?
5. Theory and Practice in Policy Analysis, Chapter 16 – How does policy get made? A simple answer would be something like this: the government sees a problem, considers some options to fix it, and then chooses a best solution. But anyone who has worked in government for very long knows that this isn’t the whole story. Governments only have a limited amount of attention and must focus on certain pressing issues – you can’t solves everything, or at least not all at once. And governments oftentimes don’t know exactly what to do: a lot of the problems that governments face are very complex (poverty, urban design, education, etc) and don’t have a clear and simple solution. This chapter is similar to the last one, but focused on a description of the policy process rather than how organizations behave.
Questions to think about: What do you think of the Kingdon model of the policy process? Does it apply in Dubai/UAE? What about “muddling through” – does that sound correct? In general, do these models apply in Dubai – why or why not?
6. Kingdon, excerpt from “Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies” – This is a famous reading about the policy process and how action is taken. A naïve model of decisions from governments (or other large organizations) would suggest that they look at an issue, consider all possible solutions, and then pick the one that has the highest expected benefit. However, this hardly seems to reflect the way governments actually take action. Kingdon introduced the “three streams” model here, which includes useful concepts like the “policy window” and “policy entrepreneur”.
Questions to think about: What is the importance of agendas here? What are the three streams and how are they related to policy formation? If Kingdon is correct here, should we expect this process to get us to the best outcome? A good outcome? What types of outcomes does it favor? Does all of this sound right to you or do you have criticisms of the concepts?
Week 3 Assignment (1-2 pages, single spaced):
In this week, a main theme is the complexity of real-life decision-making and the policy process. Please write 1-2 pages about how we can/should ensure that the results of our analysis can be most useful for decisionmakers. Make sure to relate your ideas here back to the readings.
Some relevant questions (you aren’t required to answer all of these, but probably should be answering some of them): What guidelines should we follow for how to present material to decisionmakers? If we believe that the policy process is somewhat as Kingdon describes, what role does good analysis have in that process? Should policy analysis be more like science and avoid value judgments? If so, how do we ensure that it is useful and relevant? How should we integrate “policy analysis” into government decision making? What role should it serve? Can/should policy analysis tell is what we “ought” to be doing?
Now and again, people have been known to state," What might they have the capacity to do to empower some individual they to understand that is being mistreated?" There are an extensive variety of courses of action that people can do to help those in require that are locked in with a forceful conduct at home relationship. As demonstrated by the Michigan State Police there are diverse game plans drew in with helping some person. Appreciating what one is talking about by having some establishment on injurious conduct at home. Constantly let them understand that your ears are open at whatever point they need to talk. Help them however much as could sensibly be normal by staying alert, understanding and unfaltering in getting some answers concerning their security. All in all, never let them think it is their fault, keep watching out for that however much as could be normal. There is constantly ways to deal with get help when someone needs it. They can do thusly by calling the mystery National Domestic Hotline (DMVH) at 1-800-799-SAFE (7233), they are available to the United States, 24 hours, 7 days seven days, and open 365 days a year. The DMVH have guides to help them in getting them information and referrals for themselves, their children, ensure, and authentic enable (Michigan To state Police). There are various distinctive things that you could do to help a loss or even a setback herself can do. It may be correspondingly as straightforward as getting a phone catalog to find what relationship in your gathering help with, for instance, business or even tyke mind. There are other particular things that ought to be conceivable, for instance, searching for managing or even care gatherings. While you are searching for exhorting, guarantee you recognize atmosphere the educator is for the misused and has had comprehension of working with the mistreated. To the exclusion of everything else stay dynamic however much as could be required to help your certainty, dauntlessness, and getting you flexibility back (Women Web, Getting Help). Forceful conduct at home asylum, as often as possible called a women's safe house is a building or set of lofts where losses of mistreat can search for shield. These refuge territories are kept private so these women's abusers can't find them. Safe houses are known to outfit those mistreated and their adolescents with asylum, sustenance and childcare. Since there are outstandingly compelled conditions for abiding at a sheltered house, various refuges help game plan of enduring homes and occupations (Help oversee). There are differing things that ought to be conceivable resulting to leaving an asylum so their abuser doesn't find them. The best 3 things that you can do are: 1.) get and unlisted number, 2) use a P.O. Box, 3.) open new money related adjusts and Mastercards (Help oversee). In the wake of discovering how authentic Domestic severity truly was, the Domestic Violence Bill, 2006 was passed. The Domestic Violence Bill was proposed to allow more help and easing of the misuse. The explanation behind this Bill was to allow those related with oppressive conduct at home the most extraordinary security that the laws can give. These laws have made it necessary for all police home office to have specific workplaces to oversee and give legal commitment on the officers to help a challenge injurious conduct at home. Under the course of action of this bill, cops are accept to teach the loss as for their rights under, help in getting spread, offer remedial treatment, and to stop a criminal protesting. The Domestic Violence Act moreover empowers cops to catch the charged offender, without a warrant who is sensibly suspected to have presented or who is weakening to present a showing of forceful conduct at home on a setback. In case any individual is caught they are to be brought before an equity inside forty-eight hours (Government Gazette) Under the Michigan Constitution, (Art. I, Sec. 24; eff. Dec. 24, 1988) and the Crime Victim's Rights Act, (1985 PA 87; MCL 780.751) have given bad behavior setbacks the benefit to be treated with honorability and respect. Guaranteeing all is managed in a favorable way following a catch. The loss in like manner has the benefit to get emergency and therapeutic organizations. Get an illumination of all court systems. This show empowers them to be guaranteed of being free of any risks, exhibitions, and in addition discharge from your manager. The name of the Prosecutor's who is dealing with the case. Any reserved court techniques, including denouncing, the disputant's release on bond or escape from guardianship while expecting trial. The probation workplaces address and telephone number. Go to the court trial and set forth an oral articulation to a pre-sentence pro, and to form an impact clarification which will be fused into the pre-sentence report. Losses are also allowed to get information as for the conviction, sentence, confinement, and landing of the charged. (Michigan Prosecuting Attorney Associations). There are different effects of the misuse. In case some individual had physical mistreat they may encounter the evil impacts of whole deal prosperity entrapments. Misused women as often as possible have apprehension, weight, low essentialness, debilitation, a resting issue, loss of appetite, or even headaches. They may assume that they failed the relationship. They have also been known to be humiliated and not empowering others to know absolutely what had unfolded. In essentially every occasion of Domestic Violence, women have communicated that they have lost their certainty and nonappearance of assurance. Women have similarly been known to have shock and fear towards themselves and their abuser. They are also known to isolate themselves from other, for instance, family and mates (Women's Web, The Effect of Abuse). As showed by Direnfeld (2007), the result of excited and mental can continue going for a long time or even lifetime. It impacts the setback and in addition different relatives and later associations. A significant part of the time, adolescents have the damage of the viciousness. These children create to wind up spooks in their own specific right whose direct the harmed parent can't control and whose lead is fortified by the guilty party. There are various things that a loss needs to recall, it's hard to do everything immediately. Between the police, and safe houses, the loss has other they can speak with; rather it is a consultant or even someone that has encountered it. There essential concern they need to know what are their rights? References Direnfeld, G. MSW, RSW (2007). Alumbo, the Long Arm Of Domestic Violence. Recouped July 24, 2009 from http://www.alumbo.com/article/32544-The-Long-Arm-Of-Domestic-Violence.html Government Gazett (2006). Forceful conduct at home Bill, 2006. Recouped July 22, 2009 from http://www.kubatana.net/docs/legisl/dom_viol_bill_060630.pdf Help control (2008). Forceful conduct at home and Abuse: Help, Treatment, Intervention, and Prevention Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.alumbo.com/article/32544-The-Long-Arm-Of-Domestic-Violence.html Michigan Prosecuting Attorney Associations (2008). Loss Rights. Recuperated July 20, 2009 from http://www.michiganprosecutor.org/Victim.htm Michigan State Police (2009). Injurious conduct at home Awareness. Recuperated July 20, 2009 from http://www.michigan.gov/msp/0,1607,7-123-1589_1711_4577 - ,00.html Women Web (2009). Injurious conduct at home, The Effect of Abuse. Recuperated July 25, 2009 from http://www.womensweb.ca/ruthlessness/dv/effects.php Women Web (2009). Injurious conduct at home, Getting Help. Recuperated July 25, 2009 from http://www.womensweb.ca/ruthlessness/dv/help.php.  EWHC 1190 (Admin), 19 May 2017 >GET ANSWER