In “The China Study” Chapter 1 titled “Problems We Face, Solutions We Need,” which of the following is/are true? You are allowed to select one or more answers.
Men in the U.S. die from cancer more frequently than women.
Obesity and diabetes in the U.S. has decreased over the past few decades.
Cancer kills more people in the U.S. than any other disease.
Better attention to nutrition may prevent chronic diseases and thus lower the 7% of hospitalized patients in the U.S. that have adverse reactions to drugs used to treat later stages of these chronic diseases.
Compared to many other developed countries, the U.S. spends more per person on healthcare.
The U.S.currently spends 10% of gross domestic product (GDP) on healthcare.
Material presented in “The China Study” is based on many years of scientific studies published in peer-reviewed journals and does not involve fad diets.
After reading “The China Study” Chapter 3 titled “Turning Off Cancer,” please match the following laboratory rat experiment treatments with the results from each experiment.
20% animal protein diet + carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure.
5% animal protein diet + carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure.
20% animal protein diet + NO carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure.
5% animal protein diet + NO carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure.
20% wheat protein (gluten) or 20% soy protein diet.
a. Cancer development with foci response of ~90.
b. Increased frequency of cancer development compared to 5% animal protein diet + NO carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure with a cancer foci response of ~3.
c. Relatively less cancer development compared to the 20% animal protein diet + carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure with a cancer foci response of ~10.
d. No cancer development since plant-based.
e. Virtually no cancer development with foci response of ~1.
In “The China Study” Chapter 4 titled “Lessons from China,” during the early 1970’s a comprehensive survey of death rates from 12 different types of cancer was conducted by
million of China’s citizens in
counties which was
percent of the country’s total population at the time. Please do NOT include commas in your numerical responses.
After reading “The China Study” Chapter 4 titled “Lessons from China,” please match the following that are the most associated with each other.
Diseases of affluence.
Diseases of poverty.
High consumption of diverse plant-based foods and low consumption of animal-based foods.
Greater intake of plant-based protein (e.g. soy, wheat protein, etc.) to enhance a foundation of other plant-based foods.
High animal-food (animal fat and animal protein) intake.
a. Pneumonia and tuberculosis, non-cancerous digestive diseases, parasitic infections.
b. Low blood cholesterol, high fiber intake without reducing iron absorption, anti-oxidants.
c. Higher rates of cancer.
d. Cancer, diabetes, heart disease.
e. Greater height and greater body weight.
After reading “The China Study” Chapter 5 titled “Broken Hearts,” a diversified whole-foods, plant-based diet with very low levels of animal foods (and thus low levels of animal protein and fat) is __ at reducing the incidence of heart disease and heart attacks with less side effects compared to traditional Western methods involving triple bypasses, stents, and cholesterol lowering drugs.
a. Least effective
b. Less effective
c. Neither ineffective nor effective
d. More effective
e. Most effective
f. Not applicable
In “The China Study” Chapter 6 titled “Obesity”, which of the following is/are true? You are allowed to select one or more answers.
If Sensei is 5’3” (63 inches tall) and weighs 145 pounds, he is technically overweight.
If Sensei is 5’3” (63 inches tall) and weighs 145 pounds, his weight is normal.
Being overweight or obese for both children and adults has both social and health impacts with significant medical care costs.
Eating a whole-foods, plant-based diet low in animal protein and fat can result in significant short-term and long-term weight loss and the ability to maintain a healthy normal weight.
Vegetarians consume less calories than meat eaters and thus are slimmer.
Eating a whole-foods, plant-based diet low in animal protein and fat tends to store calories as fat and discourages physical activity making it more difficult to be physically active.
Eating a whole-foods, plant-based diet low in animal protein and fat tends to discharge calories as body heat and encourages physical activity making it easier to be physically active.
After reading “The China Study” Chapter 8 titled “Common Cancers: Breast, Prostate, Large Bowl (Colon and Rectal),” please order the following statements in chronological order.
A woman during menopause goes in and gets screened positive for breast cancer where modern treatments such as tamoxifen and/or mastectomy increase survival rates but do not treat the underlying cause(s) of cancer. Use of hormone replacement therapy to address menopause can actually increase the risk for breast cancer.
A diet high in refined sugars and carbohydrates as well as animal protein and fat increases the window of female hormone exposure (earlier periods, later menopause, increased female hormone levels).
After receiving a positive screening for breast cancer and hearing about modern medical options, a post-menopausal woman reads “The China Study” and realizes she could have eaten a whole-foods, plant-based diet low in animal protein and fat yet high in fiber which in addition to reducing the risk for breast and ovarian cancers also reduces the risk for colon cancer.
About 1 in 500 (0.2%) of women are born with the mutated forms of the BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 genes that genetically predispose women to breast and ovarian cancers. The other 99.8% of women are not born with mutated forms of these genes.
After watching “The Trouble with Chicken” video, which of the following is/are true? You are allowed to select one or more answers.
a. Outbreaks of anti-biotic resistant Samonella poisoning in the U.S. typically result in sickness followed by death.
b. The chicken processors highlighted in “The Trouble with Chicken” video involving outbreaks of anti-biotic resistant Samonella are Foster Farms and Cargill.
c. Traditional USDA inspection techniques of checking for visual defects are adequate for dealing with anti-biotic resistant Samonella Heidelberg in chicken.
d. Testing for Samonella Heidelberg in chicken was successful since sampled chicken were exclusively from chicken parts packages and not whole chickens.
e. Despite rapid spread of Samonella outbreaks in 26 states, USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) required both 1) frozen remnants of chicken during the time of the outbreaks combined with 2) specific genetic matching for this food bourne pathogen in order to authorize a recall.
Which of the following option(s) are example(s) of ECONOMIC strategies that can reduce the negative social and environmental externalities of the industrial food system? You can select one or more answer(s).
a. Consumer education (e.g. everyone in the U.S. reads “The China Study”).
b. Taxes on industrial feedlot beef (e.g. assess a $5/lb tax on pink slime).
c. Subsidize smaller diversified farms in the U.S. following the Polyface model (e.g. shift Federal subsidies from large industrial monoculture farms to local/regional farms like Polyface farm in Virginia and Tide Mill Farm in Maine).
d. Create standards such as regulations on how much chemical fertilizers farms can use per acre.
e. Proceed with class action lawsuits on farm industries that result in lots of non-point source pollution (e.g. sue the North Carolina hog industry and Smithfield Foods, Inc.).
f. Create regional cap and trade programs where groups of farmers can buy and sell permits to emit greenhouse gases such as CO2 from farm equipment and CH4 from ruminant livestock.
g. Price food by the pound as some restaurants do in Brazil.
An economic strategy listed in Question 14 that can be levied and used to reverse negative social and environmental impacts of the industrial food system are
Applying corporate average fuel economy (CAFE)
to farm trucks would be another example of an economic strategy to reduce negative social and environmental externalities of Tier III, IV and V food systems.
system is difficult to apply to correct negative social and environmental externalities of industrial food systems since much of the pollution associated with these systems are “non-point” in nature. Also, there are a large number of farmers making such transactions between farmers proposed by this economic policy more challenging.
, incentives are created to consume less food in general which broadly reduces the negative social and environmental externalities of food. This type of economic policy does not target specific foods with more negative environmental and social impacts nor does it require consumers to become more aware about the impacts that their food choices have on people and the environment.
John Wayne Gacy's set of experiences of sexual and psychological mistreatment was instrumental in provoking agent's curiosity of him as a suspect. John Wayne Gacy was brought into the world on March 17, 1942, in Chicago, Illinois. Being the main child out of three kids, Gacy had a stressed relationship with his dad, who drank vigorously and was regularly damaging towards the whole family (Sullivan and Maiken 48). In 1949, a temporary worker, who was a family companion, would caress Gacy during rides in his truck; nonetheless, Gacy never uncovered these experiences to his folks because of a paranoid fear of requital from his dad (Foreman 54). His dad's mental maltreatment proceeded into his young grown-up years, and Gacy moved to Las Vegas where he worked quickly in the emergency vehicle administration prior to turning into a morgue chaperon (Sullivan and Maiken 50). As a funeral home specialist, Gacy was intensely engaged with the preserving cycle and conceded that one night, he moved into the final resting place of an expired young kid and touched the body (Cahill and Ewing 46). Stunned at himself, Gacy re-visitations of Chicago to live with his family and graduates from Northwestern Business College in 1963, and acknowledges an administration student position with Nunn-Bush Shoe Company. In 1964, Gacy is moved to Springfield and meets his future spouse, Marlynn Myers. In Springfield, Gacy has his subsequent gay experience when a colleague unsteadily performed oral sex on him (London 11:7). Gacy moves to Waterloo, Iowa, and starts a family with Myers. Nonetheless, after consistently undermining his significant other with whores, Gacy submits his originally known rape in 1967 upon Donald Vorhees. In the coming months, Gacy explicitly manhandles a few different young people and is captured and accused of oral homosexuality (Sullivan and Maiken 60). On December 3, 1968, Gacy is indicted and condemned to ten years at the Anamosa State Penitentiary. Gacy turns into a model prisoner at Anamosa and is allowed parole in June of 1970, an only a short time after his condemning. He had to migrate to Chicago and live with his mom and notice a 10:00PM time limit. Not exactly a year later, Gacy is accused again of explicitly attacking an adolescent kid however the young didn't show up in court, so the charges were dropped. Gacy was known by numerous individuals in his locale to be an ardent volunteer and being dynamic in network governmental issues. His part as "Pogo the Clown" the jokester started in 1975 when Gacy joined a nearby "Chipper Joker" comedian club that routinely performed at raising money occasions. On January 3, 1972, Gacy submits his first homicide of Timothy McCoy, a 16-year old kid making a trip from Michigan to Omaha. Guaranteeing that McCoy went into his room employing a kitchen blade, Gacy gets into an actual squabble with McCoy prior to cutting him over and over in the chest. Subsequent to understanding that McCoy had absentmindedly strolled into the live with the blade while attempting to get ready breakfast, Gacy covers the body in his unfinished plumbing space. Gacy conceded in the meetings following his capture that slaughtering McCoy gave him a "mind-desensitizing climax", expressing that this homicide was the point at which he "understood passing was a definitive rush" (Cahill and Ewing 349). Right around 2 years after the fact, Gacy submits his second homicide of a unidentified youngster. Gacy choked the kid prior to stuffing the body in his storage room prior to covering him (Cahill 349). In 1975, Gacy's business was developing rapidly and his craving for youngsters developed with it. Gacy regularly tricked youngsters under his work to his home, persuading them to place themselves in cuffs, and assaulting and tormenting them prior to choking them (Cahill 169-170). A large portion of Gacy's killings occurred somewhere in the range of 1976 and 1978, the first of this time occurring in April 1976. A considerable lot of the adolescents that were killed during this time were covered in an unfinished plumbing space under Gacy's home. For the rest of the killings, Gacy confessed to losing five bodies the I-55 extension into the Des Plaines River; in any case, just four of the bodies were ever recuperated (Linedecker 152). In December 1978, Gacy meets Robert Jerome Piest, a 15-year old kid working at a drug store and extends to him an employment opportunity at Gacy's firm. Piest educates his mom regarding this and neglects to restore that night. The Piest family documents a missing individual's report and the drug specialist illuminates police that Gacy would probably be the man that Jerome addressed about a work. When addressed by the police, Gacy denied any association in Piest's vanishing. Be that as it may, the police were not persuaded, and Gacy's set of experiences of sexual maltreatment and battery provoked the police to look through his home. Among the things found at Gacy's home were a 1975 secondary school class ring with the initials J.A.S., numerous driver's licenses, binds, apparel that was excessively little for Gacy, and a receipt for the drug store that Piest had worked at. Throughout the following not many days, examiners got numerous calls and tips about Gacy's rapes and the baffling vanishings of Gacy's representatives. The class ring was in the long run followed back to John A. Szyc, one of Gacy's casualties in 1977. Futhermore, after inspecting Gacy's vehicle, examiners found a little group of filaments looking like human hair, which were shipped off the labs for additional examination. That very night, search canines were utilized to identify any hint of Piest in Gacy's vehicle, and one of the canines showed that Piest had, truth be told, been available in the vehicle. On December 20, 1977, under the pressure of consistent police observation and examination, Gacy admits to more than 30 killings and advises his legal advisor and companion where the bodies were covered, both in the unfinished plumbing space and the stream. 26 casualties were found in the unfinished plumbing space and 4 in the stream. Gacy is captured, indicted for 33 killings, and condemned to death by deadly infusion. He endeavored a madness supplication yet was denied, and was executed on May 10, 1994. There were a few criminological markers that specialists used to attach Gacy to the homicides. A portion of these include fiber investigation, dental and radiology records, utilizing the disintegration cycle of the human body, and facial reproduction in recognizing the people in question. Examiners discovered filaments that took after human hair in both Gacy's vehicle and close to the unfinished plumbing space where the bodies were covered. Notwithstanding these hair tests, examiners likewise discovered filaments that contained hints of Gacy's blood and semen in a similar zone. Blood having a place with the casualties was found on a portion of the filaments, which would later straightforwardly attach Gacy to the violations. The filaments in Gacy's vehicle were investigated by measurable researchers and coordinated Piest's hair tests. Besides, the hunt canines that confirmed that Piest had been in Gacy's vehicle showed this by a "demise response", which told examiners that Piest's dead body had been within Gacy's vehicle. Out of Gacy's 33 known casualties, just 25 were ever definitively distinguished. A significant number of Gacy's casualties had comparable actual portrayals and were consequently difficult to distinguish by simply asking people in general. To distinguish the people in question, specialists went to Betty Pat Gatliff, a pioneer in legal science and facial remaking. Facial remaking is the way toward reproducing the facial highlights of a person by utilizing their remaining parts. Certain facial highlights, for example, facial structures, nasal structure, and generally speaking face shape can be valuable in recognizing a casualty even long in the afterlife. By utilizing these highlights, and with the assistance of program, legal agents can make a picture of an individual's face, which is instrumental in recognizing casualties after their bodies have rotted. Facial remaking should be possible in a few measurements. Two-dimensional facial recreations is utilized with skull radiographs and depend on pre-demise photos and data. In any case, this isn't really ideal in light of the fact that cranial highlights are not generally obvious or at the correct scale (Downing). To get a practical and more exact portrayal of the casualty's face, a craftsman and a scientific anthropologist are generally vital (Downing). Three-dimensional facial recreation is finished by models or high goal, three-dimensional pictures. PC programs can make facial reproductions by controlling filtered photos of the remaining parts and use approximations to reproduce facial highlights. These will in general create results that don't look counterfeit (Reichs and Craig 491). Now and again, agents will utilize a strategy called superimposition as a method for facial recreation. Tragically, it's anything but an ordinarily utilized technique, as it expects examiners to have some information about the personality of the remaining parts they are managing. By superimposing a photo of a person over the skeletal remaining parts, agents can check whether the facial highlights line up with the anatomical highlights, permitting them to recognize a casualty. On account of John Wayne Gacy's casualties, specialists had the option to utilize facial reproduction to distinguish nine of the bodies found in the unfinished plumbing space. The accompanying realistic shows the facial reproductions of these nine casualties: Since facial remaking was insufficient to distinguish the entirety of the people in question, agents got DNA profiles from every one of the unidentified casualties and effectively searched out DNA tests from guys over the United States who had been accounted for missing somewhere in the range of 1970 and 1979 (Cook County Sheriff's Office 3). The leftover casualties were distinguished utilizing dental and radiology records. Since dental finish is more earnestly than bone, teeth outlive tissue and now and again bone when the body deteriorates. Teeth are truly solid in recognizing casualties, as they will in general uncover propensities about the individual, for example, nail gnawing, pounding and weight propensities, lip gnawing, and gripping (Ryan 254). Besides, the top of the mouth, which frames a curve, is one of a kind to every person fit as a fiddle, size, and shape. Teeth likewise have singular qualities that are special>GET ANSWER