Since the 9/11 attacks, the demands placed on officers have evolved to include more complex criminal activity, upswings in multi-jurisdictional criminal matters, and an increased realization that terrorist activity is not confined by neat boundaries on a map. As a September 2005 report by the Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance noted, “a critical lesson taken from the tragedy of September 11, 2001, is that intelligence is everyone’s job,” and “everyone” now includes not only analysts within the federal government but also law enforcement officers hailing from the nation’s largest cities to its smallest towns and rural areas.
Indeed, the need for new and better ways to develop and share law enforcement intelligence was among the first realizations in the immediate wake of the attacks.
*“In my mind, it [information sharing] comes down to two things,” FBI Director Robert Mueller stated later in Fall 2001. “First, giving you [local law enforcement] the information you need to make judgments about protecting your communities. And second, capitalizing on the ‘force multiplier’ effect that comes when we work together.”
The reality has been much different. As Senator Grassley commented in the wake of the Boston Marathon bombings, “Law enforcement and intelligence agencies tell conflicting stories. Bureaucracies are gearing up to do battle over who dropped the ball. They’re preparing their defenses. They’re leaking bits and pieces of information favorable to themselves.”
This situation is described well as the Intelligence Dilemma: “There are only two outcomes: an operational success and an intelligence failure.”
Address to the 108th Annual Conference of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/news/speeches/law-enforcement-cooperation-in-defeating-terrorism
Look at a high profile case that involved local law enforcement and the intelligence community.
Some choices you might want to look at include the Boston Marathon Bombing in April 2013, the Ft. Hood shootings in November 2009, or the September 11, 2001, attacks on New York and Washington. Indicate which case you are looking at, and provide a link to the story if needed.
1. Summarize the important points of the case, including when the IC seemed to have information that could have been shared, and which agency had the information.
2. Identify 3 reasons that the IC failed to share information. Indicate whether each is an admission of the IC, a charge made by the LE community (or another non-LE part of government), or a justified opinion on your part.
3. From the perspective of the LE community, rebut the 3 reasons, and summarize how local LE could have re-positioned its efforts to stop the attack.
4. Evaluate whether repositioning LE assets as a result of information sharing would have impacted the final outcome, and whether it would have been better to share information.
5. Properly cite your quotations that you use to support your statements.
Innovation exchange crosswise over social segments, enterprises, and national limits is a typical wonder in contemporary circumstances. These exchanges are generally determined by monetary standards – the need to hold onto radical advancements so as not to be abandoned in the race to be at the bleeding edge of mechanical as well as business envelope. It is accordingly clear that the mechanical generators – one who put resources into Research and Development (R&D) and concocted 'crown gem' advancements, hold the influence in the present markets. If one somehow managed to think about the interest in R&D as a benchmark of 'development (and presumably ingenuity) potential' at that point the protection part would lead in many nations. For instance, in 2007, the US guard spending plan was $440 billion. Out of this, the innovation advancement part was $73 billion. When contrasted with this, the biggest non-military research financing went to National Institute of wellbeing, which got $28 billion in the same year. The expenses and dangers in the examination for military framework isn't generally an essential element as regularly in private part or some other state investment. R&D for protection items is for the most part supported by the state. This is a long ways from the conditions representing common (private segment) R&D endeavors where the costs must be subsumed by the maker at last cost of an item, paid for by customers in a cost aggressive market. Accordingly, it bodes well at whatever point resistance items (developments) can discover their way into common markets and turn out to be really imaginative. With regards to the previously mentioned, it winds up germane to consider examples of overcoming adversity – illustrations where protection innovations achieved common applications. Illustrations go from Internet (the US military) to bundled prepared to eat nourishment (created by our own DRDO – Defense R&D Organization). This point would be exhibited by two noteworthy contextual analyses from the remote markets that surfaced with radical imaginative items. The overlooked story of 'Jeep' is a name that is synonymous with four-wheel drive, light and great vehicles that have produced the contemporary Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) and Multi Utility Vehicles (MUVs). The second illustration is that of Ray Ban glasses. Both of these have turned out to be choice business items with Jeep Cherokee and Ray-Ban pilot glasses being considered as materialistic trifles anyplace on the planet. Jeep With a brand turn of phrase of "Go Anywhere, Do Anything", Jeep has been related with enterprise and macho since the World War (WW) – II. The first vehicle was conceived out of sheer need of the US forces. Since WW-I, the US armed force had been searching for a quick, lightweight and off-road vehicle that could be utilized as a part of the battle areas around the globe. In the mid 1940, with the Nazi powers on the command, the requirement for such a vehicle by the US armed force ended up intense. The armed force approached vehicle makers for a running model in only 49 days. The determinations were very stringent and just two organizations reacted among 130 organizations that were welcome to offer. Bantan Car Company, worked with a Detroit build Karl Probst, who outlined the vehicle in two days level. His plan was enhanced by the other organization Willys-Overland (Quad and ground-breaking) and acknowledged by the armed force. The agreement was granted to Willys and Ford as the sheer size and rate of conveyance amid the war was past any one organization to embrace. Amid WW-II, Willys and Ford provided in excess of 700,000 requests with Willys providing more than 330, 000 units. By 1942, well before the war arrived at an end, in an inventive move, Willys-Overland perceived that the vehicle could serve the non military personnel advertise by righteousness of the way that it had fabricated a brand for itself in toughness and solidness. A commercial battle was embraced for building the non military personnel mark esteem. Indeed, even as the main non military personnel Jeep vehicle was worked in 1945, Willys gotten a US Trademark Registration in 1950, after five years. From that point forward the trademark presently enrolled universally, has gone from Willys-Overland to Kaiser to American Motors Corporation, and most as of late, to Chrysler Corporation. From 1968 to 1978, the creation of Jeep climbed three times to 600 vehicles every day. With the present day, Grand Cherokee being a much-appreciated 4X4, still, the jeep story lives on. Over portion of all Chrysler vehicles sold outside the US, are Cherokees. Beam Ban The 1930s was a period of incredible walks in military flying. Flying machines turned out to be speedier and flying envelopes extended. Numerous US Air Force (USAF) pilots were revealing that the glare from sun was preventing their flying ability. This prompted creation of another sort of glasses, with green shading that could cut the glare without darkening vision. Hence was conceived Ray-Ban. This against glare eyewear saw numerous models being presented yet the customary 'pilot' demonstrate with metal edges remained the most loved for quite a while to come. Taking advantage of the originality factor and need, the eyewear went at a bargain to open in 1937. Inside seven years, the steps were produced using barrier to common use, since the fundamental needs of defensive eyewear were same for both. In the 1940s, developments, for example, angle reflect focal point with covered upper part and uncoated lower part, for a reasonable perspective of flying machine instrument boards, were presented. Such developments however implied fundamentally for resistance use, spoke to regular folks likewise because of the styling and 'macho' pilots' looks. After the WW-II, the Ray-Ban came to be promoted by numerous Hollywood stars and rest as is commonly said, is history. The Luxottica gather is the proprietor of Ray-Ban and well known eyewear brands like Oakley, other than in permit creation of numerous other best eyewear brands. In 2011, it posted net offers of nearly € 6.2 billion. Overflow The innovations and the item that moved crosswise over guard research and utilization to the common markets have been instituted as 'overflow' advancements. The contrary course has been as of late authored spill-ins. The coinage of terms is very coherent. 'Overflow' is implied as in the innovation/item was initially implied for a littler portion – the protection part and it 'overflowed' to achieve the outside world, a substantially more extensive fragment of the masses. In India, there are occurrences of 'overflow', yet the scale has been fairly tentative. A rundown of 140 advances created by the DRDO, which have duel applications are recorded as a publication, welcoming the common Industry to take an interest through innovation dispersion. A portion of these innovations have been exchanged to common area like a novel weight sintering/holding method for substantial grip plates have been effectively exchanged to Clutch Auto Limited. By a straightforward examination of the account given above, it is obvious to the perusers, why colossally effective stories of developments like Jeep or Ray-Ban are not scripted in India. The resistance R&D display followed in India is simply government focused. The legislature puts resources into safeguard related research in government labs of the DRDO. Such subsidizing or activity does not come the method for private area for some reasons. The essential reason is the nonattendance of a guide for tackling the private business' endeavors into the standard by guaranteeing that affectability related with barrier division isn't imperiled. For the sake of national security, the private business has been kept out of the barrier area, till as of late. Presently it has been understood that without the nearness of an opposition to the administration labs and Defense Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs), their productivity could never increment. Likewise it isn't conceivable to rapidly jump the mechanical hole that exists amongst India and the created (and even not all that created) world without finding an answer for the wastefulness that has by one means or another turn into a sign of legislative segments. Implantation of capital and inventiveness by and into the private area is an unquestionable requirement for the R&D endeavors to understand their actual potential. The philosophy of sharing IPR of items created through subsidizing by the legislature and developments by the private part is a faltering variable for the procedure to go ahead. Clearly guard related IPRs, even those having duel utilize, needs some legislative control inbuilt. The question and vested campaigning has hitherto not enabled an answer for this procedure despite the fact that the US demonstrate is especially present to be imitated. The drawback is that since the private area isn't put resources into item advancement from the earliest starting point, they don't have any stakes to convey forward the item so created, to a more extensive market for amplifying benefits. What stays at that point is only a welcome by the Scientific Adviser to Raksha Mantri, to the private segment, to share the R&D endeavors of the DRDO labs, as said prior. In such a situation the safeguard R&D endeavors would not achieve its actual market potential. Consider that the Jeep mark got '2012 Silver OBIE Award' from the Outdoor Advertising Association for America for the Jeep Wrangler Call of Duty® bulletin design. Is it conceivable to see this sort of forceful market pitch by an administration element? The business sectors would be infiltrated overwhelmingly by the longing to amplify benefits and this craving would show with the private areas and subsequently comes the effectiveness and imaginativeness. The Future Developments require the elements of originality and commercialisation to be available in an item. While guard items are constantly required to hold the 'front line' component, the thought process of commercialisation is seldom a factor. Be that as it may, this manner of thinking is quick changing and safeguard gear, alongside giving the adjust of intensity, are likewise ending up being huge business in the worldwide arms showcase. The commercialisation point however, can be extremely tended to if the item/innovation achieves a significantly greater customers than j>GET ANSWER