The effects of four different methods of teaching arithmetic.

An educational psychologist wanted to know the effects of four different methods of teaching arithmetic. Using 12 classrooms, each method was used in the classes. At the end of the school year, all the pupils took the same achievement test, and the means for groups receiving different methods were compared. Answer the following questions about the study.
a. What was the dependent variable?
b. What was the independent variable?
c. What was a controlled variable?
d. Give an example of a parameter.

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