Select one to write an essay on: 50 points (3 paragraphs)
1. In specific terms explain what Reconstruction meant after the Civil War. Include in your answer Presidential and Radical Reconstruction.
2. Reconstruction is judged to have ended in 1877. Over the course of the 1870’s, what caused it’s end?
3. What were the origins and meanings of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments in the 1860’s? What is their significance today?
Chapter 15-Select one to write an essay on: 50 points
4. How did the U.S. government’s relations with Native Americans change over time throughout the late nineteenth century?
5. Describe the societal and technological changes that revolutionized the lives of farmers and ranchers on the Great Plains. How did the interaction between people and the environment change the physical landscape of the West?
Chapter 16 -Select one to write an essay on: 50 points
6. How did mechanization affect the lives of average workers and the makeup of the labor force? In what ways did technological innovation alter the American standard of living?
7. What ideas did some Americans use to justify industrialization, and how did others criticize it?
8. What were the most important factors contributing to the urban growth of the period 1877-1920?
9. How did immigrants adjust to and reshape their adopted homeland? How did urbanization affect patterns of family life and leisure time?
Chapter 17- 18 – Select one to write an essay on: 50 points
10. What were the functions of Government in the Gilded Age, and how did they change? How did the policies of exclusion and discrimination make their mark on the political culture of the age?
11. In what ways did the progressive reform succeed, and what ways did it fail?
12. How did women and racial minorities challenge previous ways of thinking about American Society?

13.Discuss the film,” Reconstruction the Second Civil War” and what it implies by the 13thAmendment.



Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.