ARP 3: Using the global leadership topic from ARP 1 develop a mind-map with the literature that addresses the topics and identify subtopics.
State and explain your research gap based on the literature, your submission should include the following:
An image of your mindmap.
A summary of, what knowledge is missing?
tant part of understanding crime is trying to understand where it happens, researchers in the late 19th century and early 20th century made no advances in the spatiality of crime (Herbert, 1982). Shaw and Mckay (1942) were the first researchers to fully develop the spatial awareness of crime. They did a study on Chicago whereby they looked at delinquency data from the Illinois crime survey. Through their research Shaw and Mckay created the theory social disorganization. Social disorganization theory communicates that the environments (social and physical) around a person is a factor in what choices a person makes. An area with poverty and a high level of different ethnicities have the highest crime rates. In Chicago Shaw and Mckay noted four types of deviance: A relapse into criminal behaviour, youth crime, adult crime and truancy which were noted to be all interconnected. High levels of truancy in an area have been said to have been linked to potential delinquency. In the study truancy and delinquency was mostly found in the central business district (CBD) and the industrial inner city areas. The findings of an increase of crime towards to the CBD has been found in nineteen American cities. Many academics also found that the highest rates of crime were found in the CBD whilst they were lower rates in the suburbs (Booth, 1891; Burt, 1925). Herbert (1982) argues that spatial theory does realise that poverty is class based but doesn’t tell us why certain individuals resort to delinquency. However, in recent years the number of houses the public sector owns in the United Kingdom has rose to 31%. These houses are located on the suburbs instead of in the city centres. This has caused a mass amount of people to move to the suburbs and crime levels have also moved with them. The movement of crime can be seen in Morris’ study (1957) whereby he studied offenders in the town Croydon. He noted the distribution of delinquents in the area was related to the public housing market which was on the suburbs. This finding also leads criminologists to suggest that socio-economic status is a factor in delinquency (Amir, 1971; Herbert, 1982; Morris, 1957). The literature within this topic is much outdated which could be seen as not relevant in today’s society however, it does include important studies (Morris 1957) which may seem to mirror the geography of crime today. Policing of Crime Crime had been on the increase (5-7 per cent a year) since the early 1950s. However this increase had been argued to be from more effective and efficient reporting and recording techniques (Rutter and Giller, 1984). This increase nevertheless, did prompt a change in the response to crime (Heal, 1992). Neighbourhood watch is said to be one of the most effective crime prevention programmes. It was first launched in the United Kingdom in 1983, with now over 74,000 neighbourhood watchers around the country. The popularity of the scheme can be seen in Hough and Mayhew’s work, (1985) whereby if residents found a neighbourhood watch were to start in their area, 62 per cent of them would be willing to join. Not all academics believe neighbourhood watch is the most effective scheme, Bennett (1992) notes that there is no scientific evidence to suggest it is effective. He also argues that the scheme is all about “po>GET ANSWER