Discuss the Great Depression and Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt’s responses to it.
fairness and overall policy implementation , and also how this rationalization is useful in understanding and overcoming policy situations of high-conflict and low-ambiguity, where top-down structuring crucial in determining policy and implementation success. This is due to the need of clarifying policy impacts and outcomes for specific policy areas determined by the decisions of the principal. However, this is only relevant if the policy networks and external bodies involved can be properly identified, hence low ambiguity. Unfortunately, most policy implementation cases are indefinitely intertwined and highly ambiguous. So although discretion may be minimised in situations of low ambiguity, policy discretion would still occur indefinitely across all sectors of policy, though the extent to which it is granted or practiced may be subject to its given circumstance. For further alternative approaches and a deeper analysis to non-compliance and discretion, I refer to Leadbeater and Goss’ (1998) coined term of ‘civic entrepreneurship’, defined as a form of front-line work taking place in the spaces of local governance where traditional organisational structures are breaking down and have not yet been firmly replaced. This may have a more sound prescription of the direction to which street-level bureaucracy is heading in the future, and the ‘new kind of professionalism’ that mentioned in the earlier part of this essay. From this, I hope to have exemplified how the PAT does not accommodate for understanding conflict in policy implementation in a bottom-up approach to implementation due to its rigidly linear, one-dimensional, ‘individualistic’ rational-choice approach to divergence and non-compliance, while also disregarding situational context. This analysis then encourages the greater need of expanding upon the rigidities of the PA approach in understanding collective discretion, and hopes that through broadening the understanding of implementation conflict outside of the PA approach, a more holistic grasp of the principal-agent relationship – especially in establishing political legitimacy, democratic legitimacy, and policy change – could be further improved for future prospects of overcoming the conflicts within policy implementation.>GET ANSWER