- Discuss in detail which thinking strategies you employ in your clinical practice that demonstrate a high level of clinical reasoning. Give examples of how they benefited your patients.
- What do you appreciate about the Outcome-Present-State-Test (OPT) clinical reasoning model? How does it influence your thinking when caring for patients and their families?
- Discuss the importance of population health management, and explain how care coordination and population health management can improve healthcare in the United States.
- In your own words, describe the benefits and processes of using the Care Coordination Clinical Reasoning (CCCR) systems model in identifying the priority of essential needs in a case you have recently taken care of in your work or clinical setting. Were you able to identify system issues in order to proceed with care coordination and interconnect with the interprofessional team?
- Research a national- and state-level professional organization. What information can you find regarding care coordination, and how does this work tie in with the current healthcare policy in the United States?
displays visual perception and identifies it as a complex information processing task (Marr, 1982). This approach is split into a Tri-level hypothesis; the algorithmic level, the implementational level and finally the computational level. Churchland, Koch and Sejnowski, (1990) have highly criticised the tri level hypothesis as being “fundamentally simplistic” as each level can be further sub-divided into further levels. According to Warren, Marr explained in further detail Gibson’s theory of perception, however he left out all natural constraints. At the algorithmic and implementational levels Marr failed to understand that vision is more complex and harder than the A.I approach first theorised (Freidenberg, 2010). Warrington and Taylor, (1978) found that brain damaged patients who have problems with object recognition cannot turn viewpoint dependent 2.5D sketches into 3D objects. Object recognition is achieved when the viewed image matches a representation of a known object stored in the brain, a top down approach. This supports the computational theory of visual perception, as different stages of processing are used to achieve the overall view of how object recognition is being perceived. Lappin et al, (2011) stated individual differences, such as brain damage were not taken into consideration in the approach as it was only a generalised theory. Dawson, (1998) found information processing occurs in both connectionist and classical systems and this implies Marr’s tri-level hypothesis can be applied equally to both approaches. The connectionist approach differs from cognitive science as it theorises that knowledge is represented as a pattern of activation distributed through a network and is more global than a localised symbol. In regards to processing, connectionists suggest it occurs parallel through simultaneous activation of nodes in the network. Jerry Fodor (1980) argued that connectionism threatened to obliterate progress in the classical approach made from Alan Turing that the brain operates purely on formal operations and follow syntactical rules for their internal manipulation, Searle (1990) states that the syntax by itself is neither constitutive of nor sufficient for semantics. So the connectionists focus learning from environmental stimuli and storing information in connections between neurons. Picard (1997) defined emotions in artificial intelligence as “Affective computing relates to, arises from or deliberately influences emotions”. Projects have been based off this, for example the Kismet project. The kismet project can express emotions through facial expressions and carry out social interactions (Brezeal, 2002). Kismet has a cognitive system consisting of perception, attention, basic drives and behaviour. Trevarthen, 1979 found that the expressive cues used by Kismet are effective only at regulating affective and intersubjective interactions. Sloman & Croucher, 1981. Argued that in realistic robots, human emotions will emerge from various types of interaction between different mechanisms not from a dedicated mechanism for emotion which differs from (James, 1890 an>GET ANSWER