What are the most effective measures to make intelligence agencies accountable and why?
and use patterns interconnected with social processes and the natural resources of the area and highly influenced by a number of initiatives, such as international initiatives (for example, biodiversity conservation and structural adjustment programmes (SAPs)); national policy (the ASAL development programme (Kenya, 1979; Campbell and Migot-Adholla, 1981; Bernard, 1985)) and wildlife management (Western, 1982, 1989, 1994); also there are local processes, such as immigration of farmers, institutional and economic change among herders, economic opportunities in horticulture and tourism, population growth and revision of land tenure rules. These interact in complex ways with each other and with the resources of the region. As the main implemented activity in the herding sector one can consider the reform of division of land to individual and group ranches in the beginning of 1950s (Campbell, 1999). The general idea of this policy was to distribute lands with rights and responsibilities attached to them between group ranch members and individual farmers. From the Independence (1963), government approached the diversification of Kajiado District’s economy to involve to it farming alongside herding and wildlife-based tourism (Campbell, 2005). Another important aspect of land adjudication was reduction of land degradation, therefore there was implementation of ranchos, which started in 1968 as the part of Kenya Livestock Development Program high potential ranches were given to affluent individuals as Individual Ranches and later were sold to immigrants after its subdivision. For others, which was the majority of Maasai, Group Ranches in savanna lowlands were created (Campbell, 2005). According to Kamau Kimani and John Pickari (1998, p. 204) this policy mainly aimed to enlarge the agricultural fields, which would cause the decreasing of land degradation in the pastoral areas. More than that, there was the intention to commercialize livestock production which also benefits in improving her>GET ANSWER