What factors will place the patient at risk for antibiotic resistance? What factors place the patient at risk for hypersensitivity reactions with penicillins and cephalosporins? What are the safest antibiotics to prescribe to a woman who is pregnant? Which antibiotics inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis? Why is clavulanate added to Amoxicillin? What antibiotics are appropriate to prescribe to children? What patient teaching will you provide to a patient who is experiencing non- infectious diarrhea related to antibiotic administration? A patient is taking a fluoroquinolone; what are the most serious adverse effects? What population should not be administered tetracyclines and why? What are the most common drug interactions with levofloxacin? A patient is administered gentamicin and complains of sudden hearing loss. What should the nurse practitioner do? Which medications interact with linezolid? What is the course of treatment with doxycycline for the treatment of Lyme Disease? What are the main side effects of doxycycline? Differentiate between oral and parenteral vancomycin. What is the mechanism of action of azithromycin? Which antibiotics block bacterial protein production?
Another reason for drug release from nanoparticles was the swelling of the materials . At low pH, the polymers, particularly cross-linked polymers, have a compact structure, which considerably decreased the porosity of the matrix. This caused a slower release of drug as a result of the greater resistance for diffusion of the drug out of the nanogel. However, at higher pH, the nanogel particles were in a swollen state with a higher porosity that favored the release of the drug because of the reduction in diffusion resistance. 3- The drug releases as a result of both polymer dissolution and swelling: There was obscure boundary between drug dissolution and swelling for the carriers. Some nanoparticle systems might release drug through both the mechanisms. Li et al., 2006  studied the release of insulin from chitosan–Eudragit L100-55 nanoparticles in vitro. The results proposed that at low pH, the nanoparticles were covered by Eudragit L100-55, little water permeated into the particles and when the pH value was elevated to 5.8, Eudragit L100-55 dissolved and water penetrated to the core of the particles. The particle size become larger as chitosan swelling and the higher porosity of chitosan caused rapid insulin release. Depending on their characters, pH sensitive nanoparticles can be mainly divided into two types. One induces drug release at higher pH because of ionizable functional groups on the polymer backbone or side chain, for example, nanoparticles prepared using poly (methacrylic acid) , hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate and poly (acrylic acid) grafted poly(vinylidenefluoride). This kind of nanoparticles is typically used for oral drug delivery [97,101-109], where a physiological pH shifts along GIT facilitates the swelling or dissolutio>GET ANSWER