Part A: Short answer questions.
- Sexy Inc. (2007) gives a brief description of the influence of commercialization of sexuality on young children. This creates a youth sex culture that makes young children indulge in sex at very tender ages. In order to register discontent with how women and girls are portrayed in media, one can seek orders from authorities to bar video producers from making explicit content as these are normally available and viewed by people of all ages. It is also possible to urge media to be wary of the shows they bring on air, especially during family time. Their adverts should also be based on the intended age group; explicit content can, thus, be aired late night when youngsters are already asleep.
- Hagar T. (2011) describes the cultural image of motherhood as suffering, and as a conventional gender role. It is considered a suffering based on the story of creation whereby God cursed woman and by ensuring she experienced pain during birth. It is, therefore, a perception that women have to suffer at birth. Motherhood is also viewed as a conventional gender role for women. It is women who are meant to take care of the child, the man simply provides. Whether the child spends sleepless nights, it is upon the mother to ensure that all is well, foregoing her sleep. They are viewed as the custodians of their children; the man had finished his business nine months prior.
- Yasmin became a top selling birth control pill because of its advertising strategy which marketed it at a cut above the rest. It was said to contain a synthetic hormone that had less chances of causing weight gain, reduce bloating, clear up acne, and ease depression. This made it sell as a ‘quality of life treatment’, making it gain popularity across the United States.
- McMullen and Stoppard (2006), identify biological, social, and economic circles as the major factors that inform feminist understanding of depression. From a biological perspective, women undergo menstruation which results in hormonal level changes that can create symptoms of depression, making them sensitive to environmental and psychological stresses. Socially, women are perceived to dwell around most activities: births, deaths, accidents and violence. The circumstances around them expose them to greater threats as a result of exposure to uncontrollable events, such as violence. They are, therefore, environmentally linked to a stressful life. Most women are low income earners, and about 70% of women constitute the worlds’ poor, who receive less pay for work and are constantly at a lower rank than men. These economic issues also lead to understanding depression in women.
- The legacy of a massacre depicts how women were looked down upon during the dark days. Having had such a nasty experience, the women have increased public awareness programs by sensitizing the role of women in society through media and conferences, women have been empowered through job opportunities whereby gender sensitivity gives both sexes equal opportunities, and women now have rights, hence, they no longer keep mum when they have problems; they can express themselves through attorneys and women rights groups.
- Discourses about rape have changed over the past four decades. Women are now able to understand what rape actually is, be it by a stranger or a companion. There has arisen the general acceptance that rape is traumatic, and has a profound impact on physical and mental health. Understanding and support for victims has also been increased, with friends, family, and professionals assisting in healing and recovery.
- Aging comes with a lot of indignities and difficulties. The young submit to the middle-aged and the middle-aged submit to the old. The old are, therefore, made to live in a fantasy world that is short-lived. They are made to feel young again but after a short stint at love they are miscast. Difficulty is eminent in coping with old age when alone. The circle of friends to interact with reduces drastically, and one is likely to be viewed as a nuisance.
- Gender roles are relevant when it comes to sexual activity and relationships because physical gender differences in sexual desires are greater than other psychological gender differences. Gender also makes women more concerned about their physical attractiveness when engaging in sexual activity. It also generates various public opinion when it comes to gender and relationships because, women are judged harshly if they are sexually active and unmarried as opposed to men.
- To find out how women experience motherhood, the first project can be one dealing with women of color. Women from various native lands have different experiences. Black moms and Latinos, for example, are always supported by their extended families who are always by their side. White mothers feature more in magazines, while Asian mothers are treated based on their country of origin. The second project can be considering how lesbian mothers raised their children versus how heterosexual mothers do theirs. The quality and enthusiasm in the two households depict very different experiences.
- a) Biases against women in healthcare
Not all doctors express their bias to women. However, cases are still rife. In the first place, most medical school graduates are men, with only a third being women. Women are also very prone to diseases as compared to men. They are, on the contrary not given as much attention that pertains to their susceptibility. Research carried out regarding women and diseases do not represent them fully, as they are shallowly done, thus offering substandard prevention measures to women diseases.
- b) Women with disabilities
They are not accorded equal learning opportunities, especially beyond high school levels. At their places of work they are discriminated, and secluded, thus, not involved much in overall growth. With regard to their economic welfare, they are paid fewer wages than their male counterparts, and they are retrenched with inadequate benefits.
- Women are more likely to develop depression due to emotional, cognitive, and physical factors. Women are more susceptible to abuse and violence, making them walking targets. They are, as a result, always depressed and anxious. Differences are also noted in therapy sessions where more women attend than men, depicting a clearer picture of their facing depression. It is also common to have diagnostic biases against women in therapy as they are viewed to be less healthy.
- Common myths about sexual harassment include the belief that women lie about rape, women ask to be raped, these occurrences are common where women have little power, and that it is mostly done by strangers. This shows that society belittles people depending on gender, and whether the perpetrator is an acquaintance or a stranger. Victims can, therefore, be ignored, downgraded, or denied legal entitlement.
- Hormone replacement theory may not be the best method to adopt. This is because apart from sustaining the estrogen and progesterone hormones, it has no other beneficial effects. It actually increases risks of other diseases such as stroke and blood clots and has other major side effects such as headaches since the reaction varies in different people.
- An issue of importance would be violence against women. This is because the discrimination of women puts them at a loss. Women are very important to economies especially because of the commitment they exude to tasks. They should, therefore, be accorded equal opportunities so that we realize the important roles they play. To become an activist, I can involve myself as a mentor to other women, join women empowerment groups, organize events that focus on feminist issues, and engage in activities that enhance the provision of information concerning girls and women, such as gifts branded with anti-violence messages.
The article, written by Tamar Hagar (2011), is a qualitative inquiry that seeks to delve into the issues underlying motherhood and what women go through. It attempts to highlight what people do not know, and are not told about motherhood. The author is a mother whose personal life helps bring the issues into perspective.
Society can sometimes put pressure on somebody to get involved in something for which they were not prepared. Several myths have been formulated as pertains to motherhood, the essence being to oppress and exploit women. Facing the fear of rejection and unrealistic expectations, it is only through the words of a woman who has gone through motherhood that people can explore the modern myths of motherhood.
The author initially states that she was at a mature age when she finally decided to have her baby, but this did not come easy as her friends pressurized her to become one, adding to the fact that she was growing older, thus, the effect of societal pressure. When being encouraged to have her own children, she was promised that it could be the happiest moment of her life. On the contrary, she went through such excruciating pain that she was only relieved when it came to an end. Attitudes have also been developed where the woman is basically that, and that she was meant to undergo pain and suffering. Apart from that, she has very few roles in society.
She eventually concludes by encouraging women to be liberal about children, by thinking of the right time to have them. She discourages living in a fantasy world where women believe the sweet nothings they are told concerning motherhood, and creates a social phenomenon that encourages both parents to actively participate in the upbringing of their children.
Hager, T. (2011). Making sense of an untold story: A personal deconstruction of the myth of motherhood. Qualitative Inquiry, 17(1), 35-44.
This article, written by Nicola Gavey and Johanna Schmidt (2011), demystifies how people view and understand rape, and its impacts on both the victim and society at large. It primarily bases its findings on focus group discussions that are held by men and women in New Zealand.
Everybody is susceptible to discrimination. Women, however, are more exposed, being viewed as lesser people in society. Rape is a very traumatic incidence that is long lasting and needs healing. It can, therefore, be a great and bold move if enlightenment is done and a suitable sensitive framework adopted whereby avenues for support and understanding people who have experienced rape are initiated.
The authors give a hint of the mythical issues surrounding rape which gave a loophole for the justification of rape, that women brought it upon themselves. They also bring to book the psychological effects of rape which are seen to be permanent and long lasting, especially to physical and mental health. The view of people, men in particular, elicited the fact that they are now more enlightened and care about women as opposed to their common ‘sticking to the initial concept’.
In conclusion, they seek to encourage women to be more verbal about their ordeals so that awareness is created, be wary of their environments, and the people around them, and have emergency contacts in case of any emergency. The men are advised to consider women as their equals by treating them with respect so that rape cases are minimized, and trauma easily managed and got over.
Gavey, N., & Schmidt, J. (2011). “Trauma of rape” discourse: A double-edged template for everyday understandings of the impact of rape? Violence against Women, 17(4), 453-456.