The purpose of the electron gun

Synchrotron components questions

  1. What is the purpose of the electron gun?
    ☐ a) shoots electrons from a cannon
    ☐ b) produces protons by heating up an anode
    ☐ c) uses thermionic emission to produce electrons
    ☐ d) uses drift tubes to accelerate electrons
  2. What is the speed of electrons after the linac?
    ☐ a) 56.995% of the speed of light
    ☐ b) 100 km/hr
    ☐ c) 100 miles/hr
    ☐ d) 99.995% of the speed of light
  3. What does linac stand for?
    ☐ a) Linear alternating current
    ☐ b) Linear accelerator
    ☐ c) Lights not on at collimator
    ☐ d) Light accelerator
  4. How does the booster ring work?
    ☐ a) Thermonic emission
    ☐ b) RF voltages simultaneous ramping magnetic strength and cavity fields
    ☐ c) Drift tubes
    ☐ d) High constant current difference between the cathode and the target anode
  5. What is the speed/energy of the electrons in the booster ring?
    ☐ a) 3 GeV
    ☐ b) 100 GeV
    ☐ c) 99.95% speed of light
    ☐ d) 1000 km/hr
  6. Why must the electron beam be contained in an ultra-high vacuum?
    ☐ a) So that it doesn’t get too hot
    ☐ b) To keep the protons inside
    ☐ c) To minimise noise
    ☐ d) To minimise attenuation of the electron beam
    Synchrotron specifications
  7. What is the maximum energy of Australian Synchrotron?
    ☐ a) 1.5 GeV, ☐ b) 3 GeV, ☐ c) 5 GeV, ☐ d) 7 GeV
  8. What is the circumference of the storage ring in the Australian synchrotron?
    ☐ a) 130 m, ☐ b) 165 m, ☐ c) 216 m, ☐ d) 245 m
  9. What is the circumference of the booster ring of the Australian synchrotron?
    ☐ a) 130 m, ☐ b) 165 m, ☐ c) 216 m, ☐ d) 245 m
  10. How many beam lines are there at the Australian synchrotron?
    ☐ a) 1, ☐ b) 3-5, ☐ c) 8-15, ☐ d) 26-32
  11. Which year did the Australian synchrotron open?
    ☐ a) 1997, ☐ b) 2001, ☐ c) 2004, ☐ d) 2007
  12. What are the circumference & the maximum energy of the Spring-8 synchrotron in
    ☐ a) 8GeV, 1436m, ☐ b) 6GeV, 432m, ☐ c) 3GeV, 126m, ☐ d) 3GeV, 562m
  13. What are the circumference & the maximum energy of the Diamond Light Source
    in the UK?
    ☐ a) 8GeV, 1436m, ☐ b) 6GeV, 432m, ☐ c) 3GeV, 126m, ☐ d) 3GeV, 562m

Australian Synchrotron imaging and medical beam line (IMBL)
Note: these questions will be discussed during the interview with the IMBL scientist.

  1. What is the length of the beam line?
    ☐ a) 16m, ☐ b) 130-150m, ☐ c) 315-350m, ☐ d) 42m
  2. Why is the beam line this long?
    ☐ a) To minimise the electrical noise from the nearby air conditioning system
    ☐ b) To speed up the electrons
    ☐ c) To allow for beam expansion
    ☐ d) To minimise attenuation of the electron beam
  3. What insertion devices are used in the beam line?
    ☐ a) Superconducting multi-pole wiggler magnet
    ☐ b) The yellow Wiggle
    ☐ c) Wedge dipole magnet
    ☐ d) The red Wiggle
  4. What range of energies was the beam line designed for?
    ☐ a) 2–10 keV, ☐ b) 15–150 keV, ☐ c) 120–123 keV, ☐ d) 35–50 keV
  5. How many hutches are there on the IMBL?
    ☐ a) 1, ☐ b) 2 pairs, ☐ c) 7, ☐ d) 3 pairs
    Health and safety monitoring at the Australian Synchrotron (5%)
    Note: relevant information can be found in the Australian Synchrotron – Visitor Safety
    Information document.
  6. What safety hazards are present at the Australian Synchrotron?
    ☐ a) radiation (when the machine is running)
    ☐ b) high voltage electrical systems
    ☐ c) high magnetic fields
    ☐ d) compressed air systems
    ☐ e) low pressure water systems
    ☐ f) All of the above
  7. Individuals with which medical conditions/devices fitted must inform the designated
    Australian Synchrotron staff member on arrival?
    ☐ a) A cardiac pacemaker or implantable defibrillator
    ☐ b) A catheter that has metal components
    ☐ c) A metal clip placed to prevent bleeding from an intracranial aneurysm
    ☐ d) A medication pump (such as that used to deliver insulin or a pain-relieving drug)
    ☐ e) A cochlear (inner ear) implant
    ☐ f) All of the above
    Diamond Light Source (UK)
    Watch the following video and answer the following questions.
    Video: Tour of Diamond Light Source
    Note: there are a couple of videos on the above web page, make sure you watch the correct
  8. What day each week do they turn the beamlines off for maintenance?
    ☐ a) Monday, ☐ b) Tuesday, ☐ c) Thursday, ☐ d) Sunday
  9. How regularly do they put current back into the beam, and what is the constant
    ☐ a) Every 24 hrs, 200 mA
    ☐ b) Every 1 hr, 100 mA
    ☐ c) Every 10 min, 300 mA
    ☐ d) Every 6 hrs, 200 mA
  10. How thick is the roof of the concrete tunnel in which the particle accelerator is
    ☐ a) ~30 cm, ☐ b) ~50 cm ☐ c) ~1.4m, ☐ d) ~2.2 m
  11. How many laps (approximately) of the booster ring do the electrons complete to
    increase their energy from 100 MeV to 3 GeV?
    ☐ a) 1000, ☐ b) 5,500 ☐ b) 15,000, ☐ c) ~150,000
  12. What type of magnets are green coloured in the storage ring?
    ☐ a) Bending magnets
    ☐ b) Focussing magnets

Synchrotron Research Paper Questions
Consult the “Finding research article – Synchrotron” document and complete the following
questions for the article that you have been assigned.

  1. What is the full title of the research article
  2. What is the name of the institution(s) of the first author
  3. In your own words provide a brief summary (few sentences) explaining what the
    synchrotron was being used to help study and why the topic is of interest (avoid using
    any acronyms)
  4. What is the name of the synchrotron and beamline that was used for imaging, or
    used to produce example data
  5. What was the energy of synchrotron X-rays used for imaging (if provided)

Sample Solution