Please include something from the passage I have included and use it as one source. The text book it comes from is:
“The Rise of Buddhism.” The Humanistic Tradition, by Gloria K. Fiero, 7th ed., vol. 1, McGraw Hill, 2015, pp. 192–196.
The Message of the Buddha which is his earliest sermons, the Buddha set in motion the Wheel of the Law (dhanna). His message was simple. The path to
enlightenment begins with the Four Noble Truths: I. pain is universal 2. desire causes pain 3. ceasing to desire relieves pain 4. right conduct leads to
release from pain. Right conduct takes the Middle Way, or Eightfold Path: right views, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort,
right mindfulness, and right concentration. The Eightfold Path leads to insight and knowledge, and, ultimately, to nirvana. The Buddhist’s goal is not, as with
Christianity, the promise of personal immortality, but rather, escape from the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. For the Buddhist, “salvation” lies in
the extinction of the Self. The Buddha was an eloquent teacher whose concerns, like those of Jesus, were ethical and egalitarian. Just as Jesus criticized
Judaism’s emphasis on ritual, so Siddhartha attacked the existing forms of Hindu worship, including animal sacrifice and the authority of the Vedas. In accord
with Hinduism, he encouraged the annihilation of worldly desires and the renunciation of material wealth. But in contrast to the caste•oriented Hinduism of
his time, the Buddha held that enlightenment could be achieved by all Denote. regardless of caste. Renouncing reliance on the extinction of the Self. The
Buddha was an eloquent teacher whose concerns, like those of Jesus. were ethical and egalitarian. Just as Jesus criticized Judaism’s emphasis on ritual, so
Siddhartha attacked the existing forms of Hindu worship, including animal sacrifice and the authority of the Vedas. In accord with Hinduism, he encouraged
the annihilation of worldly desires. and the renunciation of material wealth. But in contrast to the caste-oriented Hinduism of his time, the Buddha held that
enlightenment could be achieved by all people, regardless of caste. Renouncing reliance on the popular gods of the Vedas (see chapter 3), the Buddha
urged his followers to work out their own salvation. Ultimately, Jesus and Siddhartha were reformers of older world faiths: Judaism and Hinduism. Soon after
his enlightenment, Siddhartha assembled a group of disciples, five of whom founded the first Buddhist monastic order. In the years after his death, his life
came to be surrounded by miraculous tales, which, along with his sermons, were pre-served and recorded by his followers. For instance, legend has it that
Siddhartha was born miraculously from the right side of his mother, Queen Maya; and at that very moment, the tree she touched in the royal garden burst
into bloom. The Buddha himself wrote nothing, but his disciples memorized his teachings and set them down during the first century B.C.E. in three main
books, the Punkas or “Baskets of the Law.” These works, written in Pali and Sanskrit, were divided into instructional chapters known as sutras (Sanskrit for
“thread”). The most famous of the works in the Buddhist canon is the sermon that the Buddha preached to his disciples at the Deer Park in Benares (modern
Varanasi in northeast India). The Sermon at Benares, part of which is reproduced here, urges the abandonment of behavioral extremes and the pursuit of
the Eightfold Path of right conduct. In its emphasis on modesty, moderation, and compassion, and on the renun-ciation of worldly pleasures, it has much in
common with Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount. Comparable also to Jesus’ teachings (see Matthew 5:11, for instance) is the Buddha’s regard for loving kindness
that “commends the return of good for evil”—a concept central to the Sermon on Abuse
From the Buddha’s Sermon at Benares (recorded Ca 100 9 E “There are two extremes, 0 bhikkhus,1 which the man who has given up the world ought not to
follow—the habitual practice, on the one hand, of self-indulgence which is unworthy, vain, and fit only for the worldly-minded—and the habitual practice,
on the other hand, of self-mortification, which is painful, useless, and unprofitable. “Neither abstinence from fish or flesh, nor go shaving the head, nor
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.