Describe The Role Of The Nile River And The Affect It Had On The Development Of Egyptian Civilization ?
In another experiment zebrafish were used to detect toxicants (including BPA) and to discover the health related effects exposure has to humans. Zebrafish are not only great to experiment on because of their genome is similar to humans but their embryo and larvae are transparent which allows observation to see if there are any malformations in early stages. Zebrafish were treated by putting BPA (powder form) mixed in with their fish food. Fish that were sexually mature (usually 3 months) were used and marked by fluorescent dye. Fish were divided into 3 groups of 8 fish resulting in a total of 24 fish treated. Each group was separated into its own aquarium and fed with food that could or could not be BPA treated, twice a day for 6 months. To test the fertility of the fish they were mated with untreated fish(Fig 9). Offspring was then cultivated and observed for mutations. Some effects of the BPA food were a decrease in size of ovaries to the point they almost disappeared. Males that were tested also showed a decrease in testes size and fertility(Fig. 10). In the initial generation which automatically resulted in survival rate being lowered, an increased rate of abnormality in offspring due to the ovaries and testes retracting. The first generation appeared normal but when getting a deeper look their reproductive tissues were deformed. In the first generation there were higher percentage of sterile males. This not only showed the affect it had on women’s reproductive system but males as well. Both sexes had a significant drop in the number of infertile fish. The way the embryos were inviable were due to physical characteristics, most died due to coagulation before hatching and those who hatched had abnormalities such as spine curvature, two heads, etc. These data sets proved that the effects of BPA can last through generations, these where F2 generations being affected by the exposure F0 had. Mice are another model figure that has been widely studied, due to their reproductive and genetic similarity to humans. BPA is an environmental endocrine disruptor (ED) which is a synthetic chemical that has resemblance toward natural hormones which affect development and fertility. Genes that are haploid undergo epigenetic resetting between generation and susceptible to environmental insults are called imprinted genes.3 The parental-specific methylation at different methylated regions are sustained in somatic cells throughout the lifespan of the individual, but reset specifically between generations in the germ line. In this experiment, epigenetic divergence caused by BPA exposure to imprinted genes was screened for. The effects of BPA on the preservation of imprinted gene expression were measured by a multiplex allele specific assay was generated. Mimicking or blocking endocrine actions are a few ways in which endocrine disruptors can affect methylation patterns and gene expression of DNA.13 It is hypothesized that the two parental chromosomes epigenetic reciprocal can be altered by hormone-like chemicals, gene expression and DNA methylation. 3,13 Measuring 39 imprinted transcripts for allele specific expression (using multiplex SNuPE) and characterization of the imp>GET ANSWER