Primary research question
1) How has the concept of translation evolved from the traditional print media to the modern online communication?
Secondary research questions
i. How do Jihadist videos represent the change that has taken place in the media sector?
ii. How is this representation taking shape for future communications?

The following must be given close attention and try as much as possible to incorporate them in the references:
Cazdyn, Eric (2004) ‘A New Line in the Geometry’, in Atom Egoyan and Ian Balfour (eds) Subtitles: On the Foreginness of Film, Cambridge, Mass.:

Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Press & Alphabet City Media Inc., 403-419.
Desjardins, Renée (2008) ‘Inter-Semiotic Translation and Cultural Representation within the Space of the Multi-Modal Text’, TranscUlturAl 1(1): 48-58.

Available online:
Littau, Karen (1997) ‘Translation in the Age of Postmodern Production: From Text to Intertext to Hypertext’, Forum for Modern Language Studies 33(1): 81-

Pérez-González, Luis (2014) Audiovisual Translation: Theories, Methods and Issues, London & New York: Routledge. Chapter 6: ‘Multimodality’.
Pérez-González, Luis (2014) ‘Multimodality in Translation and Interpreting Studies’, in Sandra Bermann and Catherine Porter (eds) A Companion to

Translation Studies, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 119-131. Post-peer review draft available online:


Boellstorff, Tom (2003) ‘Dubbing Culture: Indonesian Gay and Lesbi Subjectivities and Ethnography in an Already Globalized World’, American Ethnologist

Cronin, Michael (2003) Translation and Globalization. London & New York: Routledge. Chapter 2: ‘Globalization and new translation paradigms’.
Pérez-González, Luis (2014) Audiovisual Translation: Theories, Methods and Issues, London & New York: Routledge. Chapter 3: ‘Audiovisual translation as a

site of interventionist practice’.
Venuti, Lawrence (2008) ‘Translation, Simulacra, Resistance’, Translation Studies 1(1): 18-33.
1. Globalisation and media culture
1.1. Globalisation has become a broad and all-encompassing term that evokes images of dystopian homogeneity and benign cosmopolitanism.

1.2. Globalisation is mostly viewed as a continuing work-in-progress, rather than an already accomplished fact. However globally-linked our everyday lives

may seem, they will only become ever more so in coming years and, it is suggested, at ever greater speeds.

1.3. It has been frequently suggested that globalization has sent many contemporary modern societies into a state of national identity crisis as exposure to

other cultures increases. The transnational movement of information, texts, images, and populations is radically expanding the horizons of our


1.4. Media culture is the material of representation. It is crucially important as a central site

Pérez-González, Luis (2014) ‘Translation and New(s) Media: Participatory Subtitling Practices in Networked Mediascapes’, in Juliane House (ed.) Translation:

A Multidisciplinary Approach, Palgrave Macmillan, 200-221. Post-peer review draft available online:
Schäffner, Christina (2012) ‘Rethinking Transediting’, Meta 57(4): 866-883. Available online:
van Leeuwen, Theo (2006) ‘Translation, Adaptation, Globalization. The Vietnam News’, Journalism 7(2): 217–237.
van Doorslaer, Luc (2012) ‘Translating, Narrating and Constructing Images in Journalism with a Test Case on Representation in Flemish TV News’, Meta 57(4):

1046-1059. Available online:
Banks, John and Mark Deuze (2009) ‘Co-creative Labour’, International Journal of Cultural Studies 12(5): 419–431.
Bolter, Jay David and Richard Grusin (1999) ‘Remediation: Understanding New Media, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chouliaraki, Lilie (2010) ‘Self-mediation: New media and citizenship’, Critical Discourse Studies, 7(4): 227-232.
Chouliaraki, Lilie (2012) ‘Re-mediation, Inter-mediation, Trans-mediation’, Journalism Studies, 14 (2): 267-283.
Deuze, Mark (2009) ‘Convergence Culture and Media Work’, in J. Holt and A. Perren (eds) Media Industries: History, Theory, and Method, Malden, MA:

Wiley-Blackwell, 144-156.
Dwyer, Tim (2010) Media Convergence, Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Jarvis, Jeff (2007) ‘Networked Journalism’, networked-journalism, date accessed 15 November 201e.
Jenkins, Henry (2004) ‘The cultural logic of media convergence’, International Journal of Cultural Studies 7(1): 33–43.
Jenkins, Henry (2008) Convergence Culture (updated edition), New York: New York University Press.
Jensen, Klaus Bruhn (2010) Media Convergence, London: Routledge.
McNair, Brian (2006) Cultural Chaos: Journalism, News and Power in a Globalised World, London & New York: Routledge.
Meikle, Graham and SHerman Young (2012) Media Convergence. Networked Digital Media in Everyday Life, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Murdock, Graham (2000) ‘Digital Futures: European Television in the Age of Convergence’, in Jan Wieten, Graham Murdock and Peter Dahlgren (eds)

Television Across Europe, London: Sage, 35.57.
Turner, Graeme (2010) Ordinary People and the Media: The Demotic Turn, London.

Denison, Rayna (2011). ‘Anime Fandom and the Liminal Spaces between Fan Creativity and Piracy’, International Journal of Cultural Studies 14(5): 449-466.
Pérez-González, Luis (2012) ‘Amateur Subtitling and the Pragmatics of Spectatorial Subjectivity’, Language and Intercultural Communication 12(4): 335-352.
Pérez-González, Luis (2013) ‘Amateur Subtitling as Immaterial Labour in Digital Media Culture: An Emerging Paradigm of Civic Engagement’, Convergence:

The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 19(2) 157-175.

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