Primary research question
1) How has the concept of translation evolved from the traditional print media to the modern online communication?
Secondary research questions
i. How do Jihadist videos represent the change that has taken place in the media sector?
ii. How is this representation taking shape for future communications?

The following must be given close attention and try as much as possible to incorporate them in the references:
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Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Press & Alphabet City Media Inc., 403-419.
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Available online:
Littau, Karen (1997) ‘Translation in the Age of Postmodern Production: From Text to Intertext to Hypertext’, Forum for Modern Language Studies 33(1): 81-

Pérez-González, Luis (2014) Audiovisual Translation: Theories, Methods and Issues, London & New York: Routledge. Chapter 6: ‘Multimodality’.
Pérez-González, Luis (2014) ‘Multimodality in Translation and Interpreting Studies’, in Sandra Bermann and Catherine Porter (eds) A Companion to

Translation Studies, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 119-131. Post-peer review draft available online:


Boellstorff, Tom (2003) ‘Dubbing Culture: Indonesian Gay and Lesbi Subjectivities and Ethnography in an Already Globalized World’, American Ethnologist

Cronin, Michael (2003) Translation and Globalization. London & New York: Routledge. Chapter 2: ‘Globalization and new translation paradigms’.
Pérez-González, Luis (2014) Audiovisual Translation: Theories, Methods and Issues, London & New York: Routledge. Chapter 3: ‘Audiovisual translation as a

site of interventionist practice’.
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1. Globalisation and media culture
1.1. Globalisation has become a broad and all-encompassing term that evokes images of dystopian homogeneity and benign cosmopolitanism.

1.2. Globalisation is mostly viewed as a continuing work-in-progress, rather than an already accomplished fact. However globally-linked our everyday lives

may seem, they will only become ever more so in coming years and, it is suggested, at ever greater speeds.

1.3. It has been frequently suggested that globalization has sent many contemporary modern societies into a state of national identity crisis as exposure to

other cultures increases. The transnational movement of information, texts, images, and populations is radically expanding the horizons of our


1.4. Media culture is the material of representation. It is crucially important as a central site

Pérez-González, Luis (2014) ‘Translation and New(s) Media: Participatory Subtitling Practices in Networked Mediascapes’, in Juliane House (ed.) Translation:

A Multidisciplinary Approach, Palgrave Macmillan, 200-221. Post-peer review draft available online:
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van Leeuwen, Theo (2006) ‘Translation, Adaptation, Globalization. The Vietnam News’, Journalism 7(2): 217–237.
van Doorslaer, Luc (2012) ‘Translating, Narrating and Constructing Images in Journalism with a Test Case on Representation in Flemish TV News’, Meta 57(4):

1046-1059. Available online:
Banks, John and Mark Deuze (2009) ‘Co-creative Labour’, International Journal of Cultural Studies 12(5): 419–431.
Bolter, Jay David and Richard Grusin (1999) ‘Remediation: Understanding New Media, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chouliaraki, Lilie (2010) ‘Self-mediation: New media and citizenship’, Critical Discourse Studies, 7(4): 227-232.
Chouliaraki, Lilie (2012) ‘Re-mediation, Inter-mediation, Trans-mediation’, Journalism Studies, 14 (2): 267-283.
Deuze, Mark (2009) ‘Convergence Culture and Media Work’, in J. Holt and A. Perren (eds) Media Industries: History, Theory, and Method, Malden, MA:

Wiley-Blackwell, 144-156.
Dwyer, Tim (2010) Media Convergence, Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Jarvis, Jeff (2007) ‘Networked Journalism’, networked-journalism, date accessed 15 November 201e.
Jenkins, Henry (2004) ‘The cultural logic of media convergence’, International Journal of Cultural Studies 7(1): 33–43.
Jenkins, Henry (2008) Convergence Culture (updated edition), New York: New York University Press.
Jensen, Klaus Bruhn (2010) Media Convergence, London: Routledge.
McNair, Brian (2006) Cultural Chaos: Journalism, News and Power in a Globalised World, London & New York: Routledge.
Meikle, Graham and SHerman Young (2012) Media Convergence. Networked Digital Media in Everyday Life, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Murdock, Graham (2000) ‘Digital Futures: European Television in the Age of Convergence’, in Jan Wieten, Graham Murdock and Peter Dahlgren (eds)

Television Across Europe, London: Sage, 35.57.
Turner, Graeme (2010) Ordinary People and the Media: The Demotic Turn, London.

Denison, Rayna (2011). ‘Anime Fandom and the Liminal Spaces between Fan Creativity and Piracy’, International Journal of Cultural Studies 14(5): 449-466.
Pérez-González, Luis (2012) ‘Amateur Subtitling and the Pragmatics of Spectatorial Subjectivity’, Language and Intercultural Communication 12(4): 335-352.
Pérez-González, Luis (2013) ‘Amateur Subtitling as Immaterial Labour in Digital Media Culture: An Emerging Paradigm of Civic Engagement’, Convergence:

The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 19(2) 157-175.

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.