a) discuss three audit and/or accounting issues (such as independence, due diligence and valuation) that arose during the WorldCom collapse
b) critically discuss the relevance (if any) of the WorldCom scandal to Australian Auditors
Students must reference at least 8 academic journals (and 2 or more newspaper or professional accounting magazine articles), applicable audit standard(s). Students should also identify any other standards or references to the Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants, which should have enabled the auditor(s) to identify and address the problems in the WorldCom Audit. Less than 10 references will be considered insufficient.
One of the reference :Zekany, Kay E; Braun, Lucas W; Warder, Zachary T. Issues in Accounting Education; Sarasota Vol. 19, Iss. 1, (Feb 2004): 101-117.
Re-appropriating has given development to United States partnerships and has enabled these companies to diminish costs and contend all the more effectively in the worldwide markets. Companies are sparing billions of dollars by supplanting American work with re-appropriating to outside nations at a much lower compensation. Meanwhile, specialists who once brought home the bacon are presently being compelled to discover diverse kinds of work, and live with less cash in their wallets. In the twenty-first century, the discussion on redistributing desk occupations to low-wage creating nations has grabbed altogether. The general supposition is that employments, cash, abilities, and experience are being sent out to outside nations, while the American individuals are losing positions, cash, aptitudes and experience. America's financial future is in danger because of occupations being redistributed to different nations. What is re-appropriating? As basic as this inquiry may appear, the vast majority don't really know and utilize suspicion to what re-appropriating implies. At the point when the normal individual hears the word re-appropriating, it is assumed that an American organization is re-appropriating an American occupation to an outside nation. This isn't really valid; redistributing essentially implies an organization that agreements with another organization to give benefits that may somehow or another be performed by in-house representatives, notwithstanding on the off chance that it is being finished by an organization in a similar nation, or outside of the organization's nation. Words that are regularly utilized instead of redistributing are sub-contracting, adaptable staff, worker renting, and seaward. This report is concentrating on seaward redistributing. (Johnson, 1999) What is seaward re-appropriating? Seaward re-appropriating is the point at which an organization contracts with another organization or individual abroad to give benefits that could be performed by in-house workers. Albeit seaward re-appropriating is extremely near a similar ramifications of re-appropriating, it is easy to perceive how individuals can get confounded over the clarification. It's difficult to accept, yet even the media befuddles the two terms. Take for instance an ongoing article distributed by Business Week: Pakistan, A Popular Outsourcing Destination? This article discusses how Pakistan is turning into a well known goal for organizations everywhere throughout the world to re-appropriate to. Not once in this article does the writer allude to seaward re-appropriating, despite the fact that that is the thing that the article is genuinely about. (Ruler, 2009) The most well-known offices that are off-shoring redistributed inside an organization are Customer Support/Call Centers, Accounting, Human Resources, Manufacturing, lawful and IT. These divisions are the center branches of any corporate business, however actually seaward goes more distant than the corporate office. Real estate agents, Oilfield works, PC software engineers, welders, delivery and beneficiaries, and the rundown proceed. The more organizations research and find less expensive works in different nations the more unique sorts of American occupations are going oversea. The absolute most critical strategic explanation behind re-appropriating is to lessen or control working expenses and increment benefits. Access to an outside supplier's lower cost structure is a standout amongst the most convincing transient advantages of redistributing. Outside nations offer the gifts of a school instructed workforce at a small amount of U.S. compensations. Collaborating with an association with world-class abilities can offer access to new innovation, instruments and strategies that the association may not right now have; progressively organized philosophies, methods and documentation, and an upper hand through extended aptitudes. Contending companies are redistributing tasks seaward to have the cost preferences over the market and to free up the executives assets. In spite of the fact that redistributing has accomplished cost funds and has been utilized to enter key outside business sectors, these advantages may not exceed the long haul impacts on U.S. ventures and the economy. Huge organizations, for example, American Express, Microsoft, Dell, IBM and SAP all seaward re-appropriate to India. These organizations are effective and all have amazing benefits. While looking on seaward redistributing India, there are a huge number of articles that guarantee there is a decrease of in any event 40% or more in expense and extraordinary quality. There are three primary reasons that can be responsible to seaward re-appropriating to India: 1. Work – Wages are much lower than American wages, 2. Capital – Infrastructure costs are lower in India then America, and 3. Work Management – Outsourcing empowers organizations to get rid of the costs on seat work, as the redistributing merchant assigns the seat representatives to ventures for different customers or bears the expense of wastefulness. (Kobayashi-Hillary, 2005) Universal Business Machines (IBM) is notable for off-shoring their American occupations and helping other American organizations to discover representatives abroad. IBM gives seaward specialists to convey exceptionally quality administrations with lower hourly costs, which lessens working expenses and expands benefits for the American organization. In spite of the fact that the American organization is profiting by this administration, the American individuals are losing their work to different nations giving similar administrations an American give the organization. (IBM, 2008) As indicated by Alliance@IBM CWA Local 1701 (IBM association), IBM has laid-off roughly 10,000 employments in American since the start of this current year. As indicated by IBM's yearly reports, IBM utilized the accompanying in the US: 2006 – 127,000, 2007 – 121,000, and 2008 – 115,000. IBM 2009 yearly report won't be out until pre-spring, however Alliance is anticipating that 16,000 American employments will be lost in 2009. While Americans are losing positions, different countries, for example, India work has been expanding. As indicated by IBM's yearly reports in 2007 to have 98,000 workers in Brazil, China, India and Russia, by 2008 business abroad expanded by 15% to 113,000, for the most part in India. (Thibodeau, 2009) As indicated by United States Department of Labor, from 2006 – 2016 work for PC software engineers will diminish by 4 percent. In 2006 PC software engineers held 435,000 in American, by 2016 the anticipated occupations to be held is 417,000. One factor that will make 18,000 positions be lost is seaward re-appropriating. PC Programmers are at a lot higher danger of having their employments since this activity capacity should be possible from anyplace on the planet. With the present innovation, organizations can transmit their projects carefully to anyplace on the planet and exploit outside nations lower compensation. (PC Programmers, 2007) "Consistently India delivers around 2.5 million college graduates, including 400,000 specialists and 200,000 IT experts. It is evaluated that India has 28% of the world's IT seaward ability. The expense of an Indian alumni is generally 12% of that of an American one." These are only a couple of the focal points that India conveys to the market, which is the reason the seaward re-appropriating blast keeps on developing. This is one reason why American understudies are not studying these fields. Youthful grown-ups have the presumption that IT employments are eventually going to be sent abroad, so there isn't point on getting a training in these fields. (The Economist, 2006) The dread of seaward re-appropriating is evoking genuine emotion with America's future representatives. As of late, the training framework has seen moves in school enlistment, as understudies have started to avoid innovative fields like software engineering and notwithstanding building. With the absence of strength in these fields understudies are worried that their occupations could in the long run be re-appropriated universally and are thusly choosing to concentrate on their business abilities. The war for ability is at its fiercest in innovative enterprises which represents a risk to the eventual fate of the American innovation industry and the general economy. American organizations might be compelled to consider re-appropriating not exclusively to spare expenses, yet because of absence of neighborhood ability. Studies have demonstrated that the extent of approaching students intending to study software engineering is currently 70% beneath its top in the mid 1980s. (The Economist, 2006) Cutting edge, clerical occupations are being exchanged to outside nations which limit open doors for exceptionally instructed Americans. The U.S concentrates on advanced education yet individuals can't put their abilities to utilize if their activity is redistributed. "When producing employments began moving abroad in bigger numbers, American laborers were advised by facilitated commerce ideologues not to stress, that the U.S. relative preferred standpoint was in administrations—particularly cutting edge and other learning based ventures. Uprooted specialists were advised to just procure better aptitudes and more training so as to prevail in the changing American economy. Numerous specialists did, however at this point they find that information and ability can't go up against the pursuit for higher benefits and less expensive work in the new worldwide commercial center." If Americans choose not to put resources into their training, organizations will moderate their odds of continuing a solid learning base inside the U.S. what's more, actuate the danger of universal overflows. (Dobbs, 2004) As indicated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics between 1979 - 1999, Thirty-six percent of workers who lost their business to redistributing secured positions that coordinated or expanded their wages. Albeit Twenty-five percent of laborers had the capacity to discover business, their wages were 30% or more diminishing in wages. '"These worries are genuine and should be tended to," says Diana Farrell, the chief of the McKinsey Global Institute. However, she contends that as opposed to attempting to stop offshoring– a training that she contends expands riches in the U.S. economy– "pioneers should concentrate on its dispersion and help laborers who are lopsidedly hit."'(Otterman, 2004) "The $50 billion-a-year seaward redistributing business was developing at a 29 percent yearly rate until the credit emergency hit the previous fall, Mr. Common said. Be that as it may, he now foreca>GET ANSWER