Critically assess the way in which the theme of marginalization is relevant to ONE of the texts you have studied on the course.
Migration in and out of Libya is neither a new nor a recent phenomenon. Libya has been both a destination and a transit country for migrants for decades. Today it is increasingly becoming only a transit country due to its proximity to Europe and internal situation. This paper aims to assess and provide policy recommendations on the current migration situation in Libya and economic migrants will be the main focus. First, an overview of the current situation in Libya will be provided, second, the main issues of migration in Libya namely the overall security situation, the high numbers of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), along with the human rights and smuggling and trafficking issues will be outlined. Third, some of the main policies in place to manage migration in Libya will be explained and analysed. Before concluding, recommendations of policies that the European Union (EU) could implement will be made. Migrants from Africa and the Middle East have used Libya as a key migration path known as the central Mediterranean route, as its west coast is only 350km away from Malta and Lampedusa in Italy. Following the outbreak of the Libyan civil war in 2014, the centralised government collapsed and was replaced by two ruling entities in Tripoli and Tobruk. The partition resulted in several ungoverned areas and in an inefficient government structure which enhanced the use of Libya as a transit country and triggered the increase of smuggling and human rights violations. The main factors explaining the widespread migration in Libya, include the border policies with sub-Saharan Africa, humanitarian crises in nearby countries, the strength of smuggling networks, the weakness of the Libyan state and the country’s security situation. At the beginning of the Syrian civil war, many of the migrants crossing Libya were Syrian refugees. Many of them have now shifted to the eastern Mediterranean route, and been replaced by migrants mainly from Egypt and the Sahel region such as Niger, Chad and Sudan, where instability and violence have been a constant or from Nigeria where smuggling networks and Boko Haram operate (See figures 1 and 2). These ‘new’ migrants’ reasons to move vary from hunger, violence, environmental degradation, to lack of opportunities. They are generally labelled as economic migrants due to lack of persecution or discrimination and are hence not considered refugees. Consequently, they do not benefit from much legal protection and are unlikely to be accepted >GET ANSWER