How does ‘long-cycle theory’ help you understand the challenge of ‘ordering’ the international
system in the twenty-first century?
During the Russo-Turkish war of 1877 Muslims showed a good gesture; during the observation of the prayers in the mosques of Calcutta funds were accumulated for the injured soldiers of Turkish troops. All succeeding events and movements in Turkey got the same positive response in India. During the War of Balkan Indian Muslims sent a medical commission under the supervision of Dr. M.A. Ansari to their Turkish brethren. (Burk, 1973). In 1905 a controversy were rose over the attitude of the Muslims could adopt in case hostility broke out between England and Turkey. One school of thought held that the Muslims owed their allegiance and loyalty to the Sultan of Turkey, because he was the caliph of Islam, while the other group instead that Muslims should not annoy and alienate the British by supporting their adversary. Besides they thought that the Muslims, like all other Indians, owed their allegiance to the British Rulers. That was the period when the process of the decline and erosion of the Turkish Empire was being hastened by the design of imperialist power. At that time France had already seized the Ottoman provinces of Algeria and Tunisia and was moving to take over Morocco. The British were firmly entrenched in Egypt. Now the Italian sought European support for their claim on Tripoli and Cyrenaica. Having been double encouraged, they began their invasion in 1911. This led to war between Italy and Turkey and touched off the Balkan wars of1912-13, which in turn merged with World War 1 (Ali, 2001). The Muslims expressed their resentment through the press and warned the British government of the grave consequences of helping the Balkan states. In November 1912, when the Prince of Wales visited India at that time the Muslims as a protest against the British policy towards the Turks, boyc>GET ANSWER