Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the natural history of disease and the levels of prevention to design services that intervene at the weakest link in the chain of
progression of specific diseases. Instead, most focus on high-technology solutions to preventable problems. Assess the characteristics of the medical care culture that encourage the latter approach.
Hospitals and other health care institutions, whether voluntary or for-profit, need to be financially solvent to survive growing market pressures.
Describe how this “bottom line” focus has changed the nature of the US health care system.
The insurance industry plays a huge role in the American health care system and absorbs a significant portion of the health care dollar. A single payer system, whether it is a private company or the US government,
would eliminate the complex insurance paperwork burden and free substantial funds that could be diverted to support care for the under-served.
Why do you believe that so much resistance to a concept used in every other developed country has continued in the U.S.?
Presentation From the plain initiation of film visual impacts have been utilized by various picture takers and producers to improve, to acknowledge and make new importance. The beginning of film took extraordinary preferred standpoint of 'visual enchantment' to make deceptions and craftiness which have awed endless groups of onlookers. Over a century back when photography was developing as an artistic expression some corrupt business picture takers would catch representation shots utilizing a common presentation yet then when the subject was expelled from the studio an associate would be situated inside a similar setting, a snappy introduction would be taken in order to leave a black out picture follow on the film. The clueless client would then be given a positive duplicate of their picture with what seemed, by all accounts, to be a spooky figure in shot. A more inconspicuous variety included the client being set with various props around him or her, the props would be expelled for the second introduction of the apparition character, so as they wouldn't show up too purposely twofold uncovered. The phantom character would for the most part be wearing dark attire as film does not 'see' dark because of the concoction procedure in the emulsion of film which distinguishes light just, in this way just the apparition would show up in the second picture. Also, in this started the business of embellishments. This apparition trap was the beginning stage for what is presently known as the matte procedure where unrequired objects are expelled from the introduction by veiling them so they don't enlist on the film. One of the principal employments of this procedure in a moving picture arrangement was seen in Alexander Korda's Things To Come (1936) in which the upper levels of a cutting edge underground city have been twofold uncovered above film of live performing artists, matte veils forestalled one picture appearing on the other picture. This film gives one of the most punctual models of enhancements being embraced to decidedly enhance the style of a film. Obviously since film's initial trials with visual impacts the business has today formed into an exceptionally modern, carefully determined and in fact ultra-progressed visual medium. PCs have taken embellishments to a completely new level and as PCs proceed to refresh and enhance their spec so too will the film business create around these advances; just PCs and computerized innovation have empowered movies to be delivered which generally would not have been. Anyway regardless of the frequently significant visual achievement of enhancements in specific cases a few people contend that film is presently setting an over dependence on embellishments, they contend that visual impacts in a few movies are counter unbelievably crosswise over as ineffectual and a few times superfluous. Some additionally question the execution of the performing artists if all they are doing in a film is running before a green screen yelling at an envisioned 'outsider' gripping an envisioned prop. Others raise concerns with respect to the movies quality and the procedures of assembling a film where a lot of it is CGI established. So is it extremely the case that movies being delivered now would be better gotten by gatherings of people in the event that they didn't make such a great amount of utilization of visual impacts? Or on the other hand is it that a few studios and executives basically can't alter adequately to current film making? Furthermore, who is to be faulted for this? Man or machine? As visual impacts craftsman Piers Bizony brings up: One of the best misguided judgments about present day films is that visual impacts are created by PCs. Nothing could be further from reality. Human imaginativeness is the most vital fixing and it generally will be. PCs offer stunning new potential outcomes, yet the fundamental difficulties of motion picture hallucinations are indistinguishable today from they were about a century back when the business was youthful . Part 1: The Profound Benefits of Using Visual Effects in Film Computerized impacts have altogether affected on standard movies, to be sure advanced innovation is currently synonymous with remarkable visual impacts. Michael Bailey's science fiction movie Armageddon (1999) gives a decent case of a chief connecting with advanced visual impacts which accomplishes an amazing and enormously fruitful finished result. The fiasco film portrays the endeavors to avoid Earth being demolished by an enormous shooting star on an impact course with it. Groups of 'saints' are sent into space trying to explode the shooting star and spare the world. The film is soaked with advanced impacts some of which are the aftereffect of an exceptionally complex process. These PC created arrangements incorporate the whole circle scenes, the shooting star shots and the film's peak. The developmental procedure by which the visual impacts item is proficient can be a stunning procedure in itself; take for instance the space rock in Armageddon which started life as a little draw on a napkin, the picture was then refined and digitized, at that point shading was added to it in Photoshop. After this a physical model of the space rock was built out of froth. Various shots were then taken and sustained again into a PC with the goal that different impacts could be included, for example, gasses and rocks. A second and bigger model was then fabricated and utilizing an unpredictable mechanical process wired the model with the goal that a PC could read each and every three-dimensional detail of it. The last item we find in the film is a picture which is the consequence of various advanced symbolism layers with a significant number of the film's scenes containing among fifty and a hundred layers. It is a dumbfounding accomplishment of present day visual fraud. On the off chance that the film had been made quite a long while before hand it would have needed to utilize the more customary optical printing cinematographic process. Anyway this would have left green lines obvious regarding the matters and devalued the general tasteful characteristics of the film, today PCs can evacuate these lines subsequently rendering the composite procedure imperceptible to the watcher. Contemporary current visual impacts induce a film culture in light of a creation procedure that in undeniable reality is less 'physical'. As scholastics and creators Peter Lehman and William Luhr watch: As a motion picture like Armageddon clarifies, quite a bit of what we currently find in Hollywood movies never existed before the camera and this has had a significant impact upon how we consider films. The nature of the visual impacts essentially impacts on the acceptability of the film for the watcher and most Hollywood movies endeavor to conceal any indications of the film making techniques utilized with the point of furnishing the observer with a 'genuine' affair. Some name this style of Hollywood film making a 'the imperceptible style' and computerized visual impacts in numerous occasions currently makes this film making approach much more achievable, and more less demanding to deliver as expenses are cut. Movies like Cecil B. De Mille's The Ten Commandments (1956) used to be an uncommon occasion in Hollywood as a result of the costs associated with making the unique visual impacts, however now because of present day visual impacts money related hindrances have been expelled and we currently observe Hollywood expanding their yield of all the more outwardly brave movies. Michael Bailey's follow-up to Armageddon was the colossally fruitful blockbuster Pearl Harbor (2002) which again rehashed the achievement of his past film as respects the utilization of visual impacts and proceeded to produce overall film industry offers of just shy of £300,000,000. At the point when Ridley Scott's authentic activity show Gladiator (2000) was discharged there was wide media inclusion concentrating on a significant number of the visual impacts the film had utilized . In the film a considerable lot of the scenes happen in the Roman amphitheater and we are dealt with to a lot of shots of a whole open air theater where crowds of onlookers possess it watching the horrifying occasion occurring beneath. Anyway the scene was in undeniable reality developed from different advanced layers and is another case of visual impacts making a precious commitment to the film business. It is just through computerized innovation that we can appreciate with such visual smoothness the epic structure of the open air theater, the fighters participating in their wild fight and the sneering observers across the board shot. James Cameron is a Canadian chief with various titles to his name and is notable for his utilization of front line visual impacts innovation. His first blockbuster attack into the visual impacts field was with his pivotal science fiction The Terminator (1984) in which we witness a chief pushing the limits of enhancements capacities. The film typifies a pattern of the time in which Hollywood was trying different things with new methods for visual impacts through the creation of movies which intertwined the class of sci-fi and ghastliness including Alien (1979), Blade Runner (1982), Robocop (1987) and Predator (1987), a type of movies which creator Mark Jancovich portrays as movies which: Contain solid female leads; an enthusiasm for the family; worries about logical specialized discernment and the military; executing machines which need cognizant inspiration; and types of body/repulsiveness . Inside Cameron's Terminator movie we can gather an overwhelming feeling of directorial inventiveness which, for the majority of the movie's noteworthy and fruitful visual impacts, is still in some way or another compelled not by the psyche of the executive but rather by the innovation accessible to him. The film was low spending costing around £4m to make yet because of its colossal ubiquity created £30m in film industry deals in America alone. The Terminator reproduced an establishment and to date four movies have been made albeit just the initial two were under Cameron's bearing. In Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) Cameron collaborates with George Lucas' Industrial Light and Magic visual impacts house and three other embellishments houses. Cameron expands on his rendered water limb he made for The Abyss (1989); he was supported by a portion of the ideas utilized for The Abyss and in Terminator 2 made a Terminator built of fluid metal – the T– 1000. On screen we witness T-1000, a polym>GET ANSWER