« How do you understand gender? And sexuality?
« Why are gender and sexual orientation important for someone’s self-identity?
« How does the U.S. use gender and sexual orientation to determine its national identity?
«In which ways you think disasters might reconfigure national identity in terms of gender and sexual
orientation? Can you think about a specific example that might illustrate this?
Although being autocratic, Akio Toyoda practiced Genchi genbutsu or “see it for yourself” fits squarely into collaborative culture and methods of Toyota (Liker, 2004). As leaders, Akio Toyoda suggests that manager needed to hold themselves accountable for all their decisions, which they required their people to execute very quickly. Collaborative leadership and autocratic style of Akio Toyoda doesn’t make him stay away from their unique “kaizen” production method, but to collaborate more with the implementation of lean production plant which was known as the “Toyota Production System” (Liker, 2004). Toyota Production System distinguished from its competitors and hard to duplicate since it is underpinned by just-in-time delivery (JIT); product quality; employee flexibility and the elimination of waste. This unique lean production system was buttressed by principle such as teamwork, continuous improvement, quality circles and employee development. 2.3 Traits Theory Although both leaders practiced different leadership style, they have their own personality traits that made them a great leader. First of all, based on the instrumental knowledge, the traits theory also call traits- spotting is argued even in recent years, for the reason of that leader is nature born or make. Although, there are thousands of successful leaders existing in the world, all of them have their own traits which can be summarize as six leadership traits including ambition and energy, desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self- confidence, intelligence and job- relevant knowledge. Hence, instrumental knowledge indicated that “the traits are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader” through six leadership traits (Robbins & Decenzo, 2005: p. 256). However, not every leader has all of the personal traits instead of maybe some of them. And lots of examples tell us that leader with different traits also can obtain successful in every area. For instance, Jeff Bezos and Akio Toyoda have total different characteristics and personal traits, but both of them acquired big successful in the business world. However, in contrast with the instrumental knowledge, the conceptual knowledge holds that it is difficult to identify whether any people is naturally born with trait, or they might just gain those ability through their life experience and learn from it. Besides, different countries which have different culture will need leader with different characteristic. Thus, every leader which is required in different country will need to have different trait. For example, people from the Western countries and people from the Eastern country will have different culture or ways of doing things (Hofstede, n. d.). Thus, different leadership style need to be implement in different countries, if that particular countries are afraid of uncertainty and have a high level of avoidance for confusion, such as China, Japan and others, the Autocratic style might be more appropriate. Therefore, there is no one universally accepted set of traits for all leaders. Every single individual are different, their ability and skills, knowledge and experience will be different as well and they will be accepted in the mind of different people which appreciate their traits.>GET ANSWER