Some scholars have argued that realism is not very useful for understanding the modern security environment; others posit that many of the “new” threats are simply “new permutations of old threats,” and realism continues to hold explanatory power for understanding them. With whom do you agree? Explain.
monitor the residual antimalarial levels in malaria patients in high endemic districts in the country. ‘ To correlate the residual antimalarial levels with molecular marker of drug resistance for Chloroquine, Sulphadoxine and Pyrimethamine. ‘ To establish links between presence of residual antimalarials and therapeutic outcome, if any. Chapter II Literature review: In this chapter deal in the aspect the existing knowledge about malarial life cycles, vectors, diagnosis s, treatment , distribution, mode of action antimalarials, antimalarial drug resistance and factor affecting to drug resistance with special emphasis on irrational use of antimalarial drug and its effect in the community have been review. Review literature Malaria is a life-threatening disease and is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions mainly around the equator. Malaria is a protozoan disease and transmitted through infected female anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria parasite is require two hosts to complete their life cycle; one is definitive host (Sexual cycle) in Anopheles mosquito and second intermediate host (Asexual cycle) in human. Haploid parasite adopts three different cellular strategies in the distinct phases of the complex life cycle. In the human, schizogony (Asexual reproduction) occurs and this schizogony is found as two types, one erythrocytic schizogony ‘ found in erythrocytes and second exo-erythrocytic schizogony ‘ found in other tissues (Liver). There are 430 species of Anopheles mosquitoes, and out of these, 58 species are identifying in India. Seven of these have been known as the main malaria vectors in India, namely An. culicifacies, An. dirus, An. fluviatilis, An. minimus, An. Sundaicus, An. Stephensi and An. Philippinesis.. Epidemiology of malaria Globally, an estimated 3.4 billion people are at risk of malaria. WHO estimates that 207 million cases of malaria occurred globally in 2012 and 627 000 deaths. Most cases deaths reported in Africa and under>GET ANSWER