Your aunt recently received the annual report for a company in which she has invested. The report notes that the statements have been prepared in accordance with “generally accepted accounting principles.” She has also heard that certain terms have special meanings in accounting relative to everyday use. She would like you to explain the meaning of terms she has come across related to accounting.
Explain how “materiality” is defined by both FASB and IASB.
The concepts statements provide several examples in which specific quantitative materiality guidelines are provided to firms. Identity at least two of these examples. Do you think the materiality guidelines should be quantified? Why or why not?
The concepts statements discuss the concept of “articulation” between financial statement elements. Briefly summarize the meaning of this term and how it relates to an entity’s financial statements.
The African American Struggle From Slavery Distributed: 23rd March, 2015 Disclaimer: This paper has been put together by an understudy. This isn't a case of the work composed by our expert paper authors. You can see tests of our expert work here. Any sentiments, discoveries, conclusions or suggestions communicated in this material are those of the writers and don't really mirror the perspectives of UK Essays. a A long and supported mantra of the African American people group has been "what doesn't devastate you tends just to makes you more grounded". Utilizing these as axioms, the battle to survive and thrive in the United States has not generally been a simple street went by African Americans . From surviving the Middle Passage, to the sale obstructs, to life on the manors, to the Emancipation Proclamation and on to the Great Migration of blacks from the south to northern urban communities, life has dependably been one of unequivocal hardships. Religion, confidence in an adoring and excusing God and a conviction that there must be a superior way helped the African American ever forward moving and solid. In spite of the fact that the idea of subjection was not new to Africans, there were various contrasts in the subjugation in one's own particular nation and the oppression in one so outside. In Africa, for instance, slaves wound up received individuals from the family relationship aggregate that oppressed them. Frequently, they wedded into a heredity, even into high positions of society. Slaves could likewise climb in the public arena and out of the slave part. Likewise, the offspring of slaves were not dared to be naturally introduced to servitude. The start of slave exchange started as right on time as the 1500s and was a gainful business to the two sides , African and European. As time wore on, Europeans required an ever increasing number of slaves. The African tribesmen who had once been supportive of such exchange, never again wished to proceed. Along these lines started the catching of the required slaves. Those Africans who opposed managing in human load themselves turned into the casualties of ridiculous slave exchange. (Cayton, 2003) As it was for all slaves, the Middle Passage was a long, strenuous bad dream. The slaves were marked with hot irons and limited with shackles. Their "living quarters" was regularly a deck inside the ship that had under five feet of headroom - and all through a huge bit of the deck, dozing racks cut this constrained measure of headroom down the middle. Absence of standing headroom was the slightest of the slaves' issues, however. With 300 to 400 individuals pressed in a modest territory - a region with little ventilation and, now and again, not in any case enough space to put basins for human waste - ailment was prevalent(Africans in America/Part 1/The Middle Passage). Looked with the nightmarish states of the voyage and the obscure future that lay past, numerous Africans wanted to bite the dust. Yet, even the decision of suicide was detracted from these people. A slave who endeavored to starve him or herself was tormented. In the event that torment didn't work, the slave was forcibly fed (Cayton, 2003). In spite of the skipper's longing to keep however many slaves as could be expected under the circumstances alive, Middle Passage death rates were high. In spite of the fact that it's hard to decide what number of Africans kicked the bucket on the way to the new world, it is presently trusted that in the vicinity of ten and 20% of those shipped lost their lives. (www.essortment.com) Most contemporary antiquarians gauge that in the vicinity of 9.4 and 12 million Africans touched base in the New World. Ailment and starvation because of the length of the entry were the fundamental supporters of the loss of life with amoebic loose bowels and scurvy causing the dominant part of passings. Moreover, episodes of smallpox, syphilis, jungle fever, measles, and different sicknesses spread quickly in the nearby quarter compartments. The quantity of dead expanded with the length of voyage, since the frequency of looseness of the bowels and of scurvy expanded with longer spells adrift as the quality and measure of nourishment and water decreased with each passing day. Notwithstanding physical affliction, numerous slaves turned out to be excessively discouraged, making it impossible to eat or work effectively on account of the loss of flexibility, family, security, and their own particular humanity.(Library think journey) Still, most of the prisoners survived and were before long set out toward the sale hinders in America. Once in the Americas, slaves were sold, by sell off, to the individual that offer the most cash for them. It was here that relatives would end up split up, as a bidder might not have any desire to purchase the entire family, just the most grounded, most advantageous part. At the point when the slave send docked, the slaves would be removed the ship and put in a pen like this one. There they would be washed and their skin secured with oil, or some of the time tar, to influence them to look more solid. This was done as such that they would get however much cash as could be expected. They would likewise be marked with a hot iron to distinguish them as slaves. The slaves would be brought from the pen, thusly, to remain on a raised stage so they could be seen by the purchasers. Prior to the offering started, those that wished to, could come up onto the stage to assess the slaves nearly. The slaves needed to continue being jabbed, goaded and compelled to open their mouths for the purchasers. The salesperson would choose a cost to begin the offering. This would be higher for fit, youthful slaves and lower for more seasoned, exceptionally youthful or wiped out slaves (Davidson, 2008). Potential purchasers would then offer against each other. The individual who offer the most would then claim that slave. The photo underneath demonstrates a slave being unloaded to the most elevated bidder. The slave closeout was a horrible trial for the slaves, they didn't comprehend the dialect and had no clue what was occurring (historyonthenet.com). Most proprietors considered slaves to be property that performed work for their organizations. As the interest for slaves rose, so did their esteem. After the importation of slaves finished, proprietors started purchasing extra slaves from proprietors in the upper South (Cayton, et al, p288). This advancement began the separation of numerous slave families. The slaves unfit to live and work under such unforgiving and dehumanized conditions, began to "take away", and revolt. The foundation of servitude had such a fortification on the economy of America that it would win for various years. The most critical thing to be said in regards to servitude from the viewpoint of the subjugated is that a great many African Americans persisted subjection by making a world for themselves amidst their servitude. At the establishment of this oppressed culture stood the dark family. Slaveholders did this for straightforward financial reasons and to make it less demanding to control the slaves. Whatever the reasons, slaves exploited the chance to utilize the family condition as an asylum and as a wellspring of social perseverance. Oppressed kids took in family history from their folks by the stories advised to them while they worked close by their moms in the fields or during the evening in the slave lodges. Among the ingrained instincts trained them were legitimate work propensities, regard for older folks, veneration for an otherworldly world, and how to manage whites by "putting on the Massa." along these lines, dark guardians demonstrated to their youngsters generally accepted methods to adapt to subjugation by tricking the ace without losing one's sense of pride (www.slaveryinamerica.org.). Notwithstanding depending on the quality of family arranges, the subjugated swung to religion as a methods for adapting to subjection. Amid the pioneer period, most subjugated Africans held decently well their indigenous African religions or Islam in the instances of the individuals who had originated from Muslim nations. It was not until the mid-eighteenth century that huge quantities of Africans started changing over to Christianity amid the religious recovery development that cleared over the English provinces. Amid this Great Awakening, English Methodists and Baptists (later) lectured a zealous style of Christianity that engaged the feelings and offered salvation to all who grasped Christ paying little mind to one's class or race. This new passionate religion mixed pleasantly with African otherworldly convictions and religious practices. Its accentuation on singing, passionate intensity, otherworldly resurrection, and aggregate body drenching in water amid submersion was particularly alluring to oppressed blacks (http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/history/hs_es_overview). Be that as it may, the nation was not very still. Religious changes, the abolitionist servitude development and the common war were all in advance as of now. Albeit not very many picked not comprehend why the slaves needed their flexibility, a few nationals did not comprehend the partition of the foundation in view of religion and religious reform(Cayton et al.) Beginning in 1861, conditions of the North conflicted with conditions of the South in a ruthless clash that Americans called the Civil War. The reasons for the Civil War were numerous and complex. Numerous white Northerners trusted that subjugation damaged the essential standards of both the United States and the Christian religion, and trusted that servitude was an abhorrent that couldn't go on without serious consequences. The primary shots discharged in 1861 flagged the beginning of the country's Civil War and went on for a long time. Slaves were utilized automatically for work by the Confederates. Liberated African Americans were utilized to construct fortifications, drive wagons and perform noncombat employments. Dark volunteers were not permitted to join the Union armed force, anyway in 1862 Congress approved Lincoln to acknowledge African Americans into the military. A while later, Lincoln made the declaration in the Emancipation Proclamation. Given this support, almost 185,000 African Americans had enrolled in the Union Army. For these officers, battling to help free other people who were still oppressed had extraordinary meaning(Cayton, p.397). From 1861 to 1865 an expected 620,000 officers were murdered, of which more than 38,000 were African American. The injuries of war, both physically and mentally were not effortlessly mended, and carried on into the twentieth century(Goldfarb, S). About 240 years were to have gone before the Thirteenth Ame>GET ANSWER