Early Film: As an inherently visual medium largely dependent upon human actors, film frequently reflects, supports, or questions popular attitudes about race. In an essay of 300- 500 words, discuss the ways in which early films either reinforced or challenged contemporary beliefs regarding race in the societies that watched them. You may wish to discuss Cabiria, The Birth of a Nation, and/or Roman Scandals. A good essay will consider the intended audience for each film and explore the often-implicit messages that elements like casting and costuming send to a viewer.
security issues. (Carr, 1939) This has been criticised due to it being unsystematic as the persistent focus is on securitising actors as political elites rather on securitising power of images and material practices, also the procedure of which the audience approves the move by securitising actors. (McDonald, 2008) Securitisation therefore becomes a self-referential practice where the role of the audience works only in a way that constructs a process that has been fixed in the social sphere. An example is that the securitisation theory has unsuccessfully been applied to Western liberal democracy; adopting the ‘dualistic constructivism’ of the Copenhagen School leads to lack of attention to the social construction of actors, audiences and the system itself. (Huysmans, 1998) therefore, it is crucial that the social environment has to be developed over time to ensure that certain contextual factors are shaped effectively so that it will have a positive impact on the definition of security. Another weakness of the securitisation theory, is they fail to consider external factors. Second generation scholars stress the lack of focus on external context of securitisation such as gender, institutional setting, cultural or regional environment. (Wilkinson, 2011) For example during the Cold War, Nato and EU come together effectively to support one another during time of war. All the international actors get together, ignoring cultural and national differences each country have to face the threat. The end of the Cold War results in the tensions between these countries rising again, so these international actors worked alongside each other to face the common threat and to work together for national security culture. Due to the fact that the Copenhagen School fails to consider these factors, an alternative model is proposed in which agent, act, and context embody different levels of securitization analysis which presents a more complex understanding of the>GET ANSWER