According to Langewiesche, what can we really trust about our understanding of the sinking of the Estonia? And, after reading both Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 of The Outlaw Sea, what does Langewiesche want us to gain from our exposure to all the facets of the Estonia’s sinking and investigations? According to The Outlaw Sea, what can we know about what really happened to the Estonia? More importantly, what are the multiple factors that contributed to the confusions over what really happened to the Estonia? Pay attention to the direct and indirect causes of our lack of full knowledge according to Langewiesche. And, more importantly, what is Langewiesche attempting to do for us by educating us so thoroughly on this complex and sometimes confusing material?
Empathy, as a psychological process, has drastic effects on social behaviours and interactions. The capacity for people to resonate with each other effectively is dependent on the experience of empathy (Hakansson 2003). All social activity is reliant on an understanding of others as well as one’s self, therefore empathy is at the root of all social interactions. The experience of stress, however, can supress brain development and impair an individual’s empathetic experience, meaning the social environment of which a person is exposed to has an extreme impact on their ability to empathise. Not only does empathy have implications to the biological and social levels of analysis, but also to human cognition. The Cognitive Neuroscience Conceptualization of empathy suggests that, empathy comprises four subjectively experienced cognitive components; affective response, self-other awareness, perspective taking, and emotion regulation (Gerdes, Lietz, & Segal, 2011). “Affective response is a component that implicates the automatic and unconscious process of affect sharing, or the mirroring of another person’s actions” (Segal et al. 2015). This psychological component is a result of the activation of the Mirror Neuron System (Gallese 2003, 2009). The other three components of empathy are cognitive processes, which consist of the ability to recognize and understand others experiences and emotions as well as distinguishing the self from others, through emotion regulation As the experience empathy involves processes from, and has implications across many levels of psychology, the teaching or development of this ability is exceptionally important to human interaction. However, since there are biological, cognitive and social components that all contribute to an individual’s ability to empathise with others, the extent to and the way that empathy can be taught becomes increasingly complex. 3. The Neural Basis of Empathy 3.1 Monkeys and Empathy Neurons In the early 1900’s, Italian Neurophysiologist Vittorio Gallese, who was a part of a research group at the University of Parma, discovered a class of brain cells in macaque monkeys. These cells are now referred to as Mirror Neurons, which collectively form the Mirror Neuron System (Gallese 2003, 2009). Gallese was working with a macaque monkey that had electrodes implanted in its brain. Neurons began to fire in the monkeys pre-motor cortex as Gallese reached for his food. (Iacoboni 2009, Society for Neuroscience 2008). These same neurons would fire when the monkey was by itself perfor>GET ANSWER