What does Parsons mean when he writes that a theory of the social system must be action oriented, and what are the elements of the action frame of reference?
iccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), a Florentine diplomat and political thinker, believed that temperament is best understood in an exceedingly social context. in keeping with Machiavelli, folks area unit basically egotistic, greedy, ungrateful, and unforgiving. moreover, he saw 2 primary forces as process human character. the primary one is associate Italian term—virtù—which is best described as a mix of positiveness, fearlessness, and assurance. Machiavelli referred to as the second force Fortuna, that is that the Latin word for luck. someone might become a robust leader with the assistance of an honest dose of virtù and Fortuna. in keeping with him leaders United Nations agency act out of kindness and a believe the essential goodness of humanity can continuously fail. This belief is usually expressed by modern folks as “nice guys end last.” There are variety of different theories regarding however temperament develops. totally different schools of thought in science influence several of those theories. Type theory of temperament Perhaps the earliest acknowledged theory of temperament is that of the Greek MD Hippocrates (c. 400 B.C.), United Nations agency characterised human behaviour in terms of 4 temperaments, every related to a unique humour, or “humour.” The sanguine, or optimistic, kind was related to blood; the unemotional kind (slow and lethargic) with phlegm; the melancholic kind (sad, depressed) with black bile; and also the choleric (angry) kind with bodily fluid. Individual temperament made up our minds by the number of every of the four humours. Hippocrates’ system remained authoritative in Western Europe throughout the medieval and Renaissance periods. abounding references to the four humours is found within the plays of playwright, and also the terms with that Hippocrates tagged the four temperament sorts area unit still in common use nowadays. the idea of temperaments is among a spread of systems that influence human temperament by dividing it into sorts. A wide popularized (but scientifically dubious) trendy assortment of temperament was developed within the Nineteen Forties by William Sheldon, associate yank man of science. Sheldon classified temperament into 3 classes supported body types: the someone (heavy and easy-going), person (muscular and aggressive), and individual (thin and intellectual or artistic).>GET ANSWER