Investigate whether communicative language teaching (CLT) improves the writing performance of adult Saudi students more than non-communicative language teaching (non-CLT). The subjects of this study will be selected from the Preparatory Year Program (PYP) at a public university in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Does the English proficiency level of the students in the CLT classroom improve faster than that of the students in the non-CLT classroom? How do the teaching methods used by the two teachers differ? Will the writing strategies differ based on the learning style? The target population is adult Saudi students in a preparatory year program in a Saudi University.
Directives have for long been a tool for the European Union to harmonise the legal systems of different Member States. The refusal of the Court to identify horizontal direct effect as a principle of law as opposed to a concept is odd when observed in the light of its effect on European integration. Horizontal direct effect of directives would not only allow l’ effete utile of EU law but it would allow the court to continue its legacy as a measure of last resort for individuals to claim rights. While the estoppel argument argues that the State must not benefit from its failure to impose directives does the argument justify individuals losing out on rights because of the failure of the State to integrate directives. Horizontal direct effect has only been proposed as a measure to be used when the State fails to implement a directive and the ‘implementation period must have expired’ clause needed to invoke direct effect ensures that. Given the Court’s recent resolve on remedies and just enforcement of Community rights before the national court, horizontal direct effect would be a logical conclusion. Moreover, horizontal direct effect of directives is the most coherent deduction of the principle of supremacy of EC law. It can be aptly justified by the very concept of direct effect as it focuses on conferring rights on individuals which the State should not have the power to prevent. When conferring horizontal direct effect to Treaty articles the Court focused on their content as opposed to who the Treaty articles were addressed to and logically the same argument should be used for directives. The Court in Defrenne has identified that the Community is not purely an economic union. In the process of economic integration, it generated by-products and the judicial protection of the individual’s rights was one of them and horizontal direct effect would conform to this. Since Monist and Dualist approaches are both present, horizontal direct effect of directives would help bridge the disparity as it would allow the individuals, irrespective of which Member State they belong to, to be on equal ground in terms of their rights irrespective to the manner in which their State interprets international law. The Court has recognised the contradictory nature of the “no horizontal direct effect rule” and it is visible in its proceedings. The Court compensates by broadening the scope of vertical direct effect using the Foster test, which as seen in Marshall can create an unjust system for those employed by private parties at times. The development of the principle of indirect effect in Marleasing and cases such as CIA Security and Unilever Italia show that the Court ruled in favour of horizontal direct effect. Irrespective of its focus on a ‘substantial procedural effect’ in bo>GET ANSWER