The term friendraising is used regularly when describing how fundraising professionals build relationships with board members, volunteers, and donors to solicit support for nonprofit organizations. However, the nonprofit organization’s clientele is often overlooked in this process. The extent to which a nonprofit organization develops and implements a volunteer program depends upon the nature and frequency of activities to be conducted by the volunteers. To conduct a successful capital campaign, a nonprofit organization must convince its constituents that the project deserves support. However, the first step is to determine whether such a major fundraising initiative is required.
Analyze and discuss why friendraising with a nonprofit organization’s clientele is important.
Evaluate and explain the role solicitation plays in this friendraising relationship.
Consider an emerging nonprofit organization, what infrastructure is required to develop an effective volunteer program?
In your opinion, when should a nonprofit organization consider a capital campaign? Discuss some prerequisites of a capital campaign and provide appropriate research to support your argument.
near-IR absorbing: that is, they absorb in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, 700-2500nm.7 Examples of the gold nanostructures with near-IR absorption include gold-gold sulfide nanoparticles8, gold-chitosan nanocomposites9, and Fe3O4 polymer nanoparticles with a gold shell10, to name a few, and these will be discussed in further detail later in this review. When nanostructures which absorb in the NIR region are treated with such light, they convert the energy of the light into heat – enough to destroy a tumour, and thus can be used to selectively destroy tumours by being injected into them and irradiated with NIR laser light.11 NIR light is attractive due to the fact that it does not harm the tissue itself; it is only when coupled with the gold nanostructures that any damage is caused.12 An alternate method to photothermal therapy but still utilising the NIR absorption of gold nanostructures is to use NIR light to initiate the release of an anti-cancer drug, and use the gold nanostructures as a carrier for such drugs. An example of this is gold/gold-sulfide nanoparticles, and their synthesis and detailed application will be discussed further.8 This literature review will discuss the history and basic chemistry of gold nanoparticles, various methods of synthesising gold nanostructures with NIR absorption, and the ways in which they have been applied (or have the potential to be applied) in studies in order to detect and treat cancer and tumours, as well as exploring the ethical considerations of this branch of science and suggesting areas in which further research should be undertaken. The earliest known use of gold nanoparticles (and perhaps the most famous) is the Lycurgus cup, a Roman cup from roughly the 4th Century which appears green when illuminated from the front, and red when illuminated from the inside. In 1980, the cup was confirmed to contain nanoparticles of silver and gold, with diameters ranging from 50nm to 100nm. The green colour is due to the diffusion of light from the outside, and the red colour is due to the silver-gold alloy that is present and absorbs at 515nm.13 Although gold nanoparticles are a new branch of medicine, gold itself has been used for medicinal applications as early as 2500BC in Ancient Egypt, and records show gold being used to treat fevers in the 17th Century and later syphilis in the 19th Century The simplest and most common method of gold nanoparticle synthesis is the Turkevich method, involving the reduction of gold. This reaction is carried out at 100°C, and chloroauric acid is reduced by sodium citrate with constant stirring. It is possible to have variation in the diameters of the gold nanoparticles by varying the concentration of citrate used.17 This method was first proposed in 1951 by Turkevich, and in the 1970s was improved by Frens. Other methods which include the reduction of gold are the Brust-Schriffin method, using sodium borohydride as the reducing agent; the Murphy method, which uses ascorbic acid as the reducing agent; the Perrault method, where hydroquinone is the reducing agent, and the Polyol process, with various diols reducing the gold. Each of these methods will pr>GET ANSWER