Explain the relationship between (a) women being evaluated more favorably when using a participatory or democratic leadership style, (b) women spending more time on child rearing and household chores than men do, and (c) professional women evaluating themselves on gender-role biased standards.
on-compliance. The lack of obvious reciprocal benefits or costs in the case of human rights is further complicated by the infringement of domestic sovereignty that such treaties represent. The conflict between the costs to state sovereignty and the benefits of signing such treaties must be explained in order to determine why states are willing to overlook such interference in their domestic affairs. Despite the British government being opposed to such interference in the British domestic system and having major qualms about ratifying the CAT, they did so regardless. This thesis will contribute to the debate about motivations behind ratification of human rights treaties by identifying the reasons behind Britain’s ratification of the CAT despite significant opposing factors. Crucial questions regarding the ratification of human rights treaties have divided theorists into a number of distinct groups. Realist scholars see states joining such treaties through instrumental self-interested convenience, making cost-benefit analysis based primarily on material incentives. Rational institutionalists, while agreeing with the claim that states act out of self-interest, see that treaty adherence can represent a long-term preference for restraint. These theorists may also recognise the importance of reputation in a functionalist sense, whereby stable expectations of an actor can help further cooperation and material benefits. Liberal scholars highlight the importance of domestic processes, and pressure by NGOs, citizens and norm entrepreneurs. Finally, constructivist theories centre around the social context of shared subjective understandings, and some highlight the way in which at least some types of states might ratify sincerely, as they have internalised the norms that such treaties institutionalise. Other constructivist explanations look to conscious role-playing, as norms constrain behaviour even when actors don’t fully believe in them. This latter explanation looks both at discomfort about being out of step with a certain peer group and the impact on Britain’s social status. Typically constructivist concerns about status and identity thus play into the broader international politics of social competition.>GET ANSWER