The Woodstock Appliance Company carries four products. The annual demands for these
products range from 300/year for a high-end vacuum cleaner to 30,000/year for a table
fan. The order costs, holding costs, and purchase costs, as well as how much space each
product occupies, are known for each of the four products. The numerical information is
summarized in the following table.
Product 1 2 3 4
Annual Demand (D) 5,000 10,000 30,000 300
Order Cost (S) $400 $700 $100 $250
Holding Cost Rate 10% 10% 10% 10%
Purchase Price (P) $500 $250 $80 $1,000
Space/unit 12 25 5 20
Woodstock rents a warehouse in NJ to store and distribute its inventory of the four
products. The rent is $7 per square feet per year. The warehouse manager asks you to
develop a “simple” inventory control policy (i.e., the order quantities/cycles) and
determine how much storage space to rent. Assume that the order cycle for each product
is at least one week.
1. H=Holding cost rate*Purchase price;
2. For each product, annual inventory cost= annual ordering + annual holding costs;
3. Total inventory cost=sum of annual inventory costs of the four products;
4. Storage space=12Q1+25Q2+5Q3+20Q4, where Q’s are order sizes for the four
products. Use Excel function “sumproduct”;
5. Total cost=total inventory cost + annual rent of storage space;
6. Modify the EOQ model by incorporating four products and the storage space
7. Since the total cost function is nonlinear, pick the algorithm option of “GRG
nonlinear” in Solver;
8. Use Excel Solver and play various scenarios;
9. Make sure that the inventory control policy is “simple” (i.e., order cycles are in
You need to develop three excel spreadsheet models.
I. Try EOQ formula for each product and calculate inventory costs, storage space
needed and total cost;
II. Develop an optimization model and use Solver to determine order quantities and
rental storage space (minimization of total cost);
III. Calibrate what you got in Model II to obtain a “simple” inventory control policy
and determine order quantities/cycles and how much storage space to rent (keep
the total cost close to what you get in II).
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.