History 01:512:242 World War II Fall 2018
Ending the Pacific War: Course Project Instructions
The use of nuclear weapons against Japan remains one of the most controversial aspects of American participation in World War II. The course project is designed to educate you on the options American defense officials considered in trying to compel the Japanese to surrender, and to demonstrate some of the difficulties those officials encountered in choosing one option over the other.
The course project comprises 20 percent of your course grade and has two phases. In the first phase, you will write a 4 – 6 page paper exploring the pros and cons of your option. In the second, you will attempt to convince four of your peers that your option would be preferable to the others in ending the war.
Setup: Picking an Option
Senior officers in the armed forces, civilian officials in the War and Navy Departments, and members of the State Department considered five different options to end the Pacific War. They were an amphibious invasion of Japan; a surface and submarine blockade meant to pressure the Japanese government into surrendering; continuing the conventional strategic bombardment of Japan, to the same end; offering generous terms of surrender to the Japanese government; and the historically chosen option, using nuclear weapons to induce the Japanese surrender.
Although the instructor would prefer you write your paper on an option in which you have an interest, he also recognizes that those writing on nuclear weapons will have an easier time than those writing on other options. Thus the five options will be apportioned according to the following rules:
1. Anyone who wishes to study one of the non-nuclear options may volunteer to do so, provided that less than one-fifth of the class has already volunteered for that option. You may volunteer at any time before October 29.
2. On October 29, the instructor will randomly assign options to all students who have not yet selected an option. At this time, a list of topic assignments will be posted to Sakai.
3. You may trade options with your classmates. The instructor will allow the change after you and your trading partner both confirm it.
4. After the beginning of class on November 19, no changes in options will be allowed.
Part I: The Paper
The paper is meant as an in-depth analysis of your option. It should discuss the benefits and drawbacks of selecting it as the primary method of ending the Pacific War, describe why American policymakers rejected (or, in the case of the atomic bomb, approved) it, and offer your own opinion on whether or not your option was the best choice.
You should begin your research by reading all of J. Samuel Walker’s Prompt and Utter Destruction: Truman and the Use of Atomic Bombs against Japan. You should also consider whether other course readings or the course lectures have addressed general aspects of your option.
Because the use of nuclear weapons was so controversial, the government and people involved in the decision (or their descendants) have released primary source materials. There is also a wide body of research on the final months of the Pacific War. The Harry S Truman Library & Museum (http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/bomb/large/ ) and the National Security Archive (https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/nukevault/ebb525-The-Atomic-Bomb-and-the-End-of-World-War-II/ ) have extensive primary source document collections. You may also want to consider some of the documents posted by the U.S. Army’s Combined Arms Research Library (http://cgsc.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ ; be careful to distinguish between documents generated by the units or participants themselves, and those written by historians after the war). The “Essay on Sources” in the Walker book lists sources you can peruse, or ask Rutgers University Library to acquire for you. The instructor also is somewhat knowledgeable about secondary sources.
The paper itself will be 4 to 6 pages in length. Although the lower limit is firm, the instructor is open to longer papers if you request and can justify a higher page count. The paper will be graded to the same standards as the short papers in this course, with these exceptions:
• The failure to discuss benefits, drawbacks, the historical decision of policymakers, or your own opinion will be penalized in the “Argument and Organization” category. Failing to discuss one of the four will reduce your grade in this category one level. Failing to discuss two or more will reduce it to the “Unsatisfactory” level.
• You must cite at least one primary source (a source created by a participant or eyewitness at any time, or a government agency during the war) and at least three secondary sources (a source written by historians using primary sources).
You may use any of the course materials in writing your paper, but Sledge’s With the Old Breed will not count as a primary source for the purposes of the course project. Similarly, Murray & Millett, Kennedy, Walker, and your lecture notes will not count as secondary sources for the purposes of the course project.
If you fail to cite the appropriate number of sources, you will be penalized in the following manner: the instructor will grade your paper, and then deduct ten points for each source missing.
The paper is due at the beginning of class on December 3. It will comprise 75 percent of your project grade.
Part II: The Committee Meeting
Rather than lecture on December 3, the instructor will divide you into groups. You will pretend to be a member of a committee making a recommendation to President Truman about which option should be used to try and end the Pacific War. Each member of the committee will have ten minutes to discuss the pros and cons of her or his option. You will then spend ten minutes or so discussing amongst yourselves which option to recommend.
The instructor will distribute a form to each committee. One member of the committee should volunteer to be a secretary. The form will have blanks for a quick summary of the pros and cons for each option; the option the committee recommends; and why the committee recommended the option it did. Make sure your secretary has legible handwriting! The instructor will determine the group grade based on the quality of your notes. Each member of the committee will receive the same grade for the meeting (worth 25 percent of your project grade).
To encourage you to be as persuasive as possible in summarizing your options’ pros and cons, the member of the group whose option is chosen will receive two points’ extra credit on his/her course project paper, and a third if the option is chosen unanimously.
If you have questions on any aspect of the course project, or you would like advice or help in writing the paper, please contact the instructor.
Relationship in relational unions can prompt numerous hereditary variations from the norm in the offsprings. The youngsters are influenced in differing degrees of seriousness. Immune system lymphoproliferative disorder is a case of a hereditary variation from the norm wherein there is a nonattendance of apoptosis of lymphoproliferative cells, thus prompting amplification of lymph hubs and spleen and related immune system anomalies. Immune system lymphoproliferative disorder emerges from the get-go in youth in individuals who acquire transformations in qualities that intercede lymphocyte apoptosis, or programed cell passing. In the invulnerable framework, antigen-incited lymphocyte apoptosis keeps up insusceptible homeostasis by restricting lymphocyte amassing and limiting responses against self-antigens. In immune system lymphoproliferative disorder, deficient lymphocyte apoptosis shows as constant, nonmalignant adenopathy and splenomegaly; the extension of a surprising populace of CD4– CD8– T cells; and the advancement of immune system sickness. Most instances of immune system lymphoproliferative disorder include heterozygous transformations in the lymphocyte surface protein Fas (CD95, Apo1) that weaken a noteworthy apoptotic pathway. Here, we report an instance of a multi year old tyke with repetitive numerous swellings in the head and neck district. Watchwords Immune system lymphoproliferative disorder, apoptosis, summed up lymphadenopathy Presentation Lymphadenopathy in youngsters with no known irresistible or harmful reason comprises a testing analytic situation. An as of late depicted element that deï¬nes a few youngsters with already unexplained lymphadenopathy is the immune system lymphoproliferative disorder (ALPS). The clinical precursors to ALPS involve different disorders of familial interminable nonmalignant lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, including pseudomononucleosis, pseudolymphoma, and the Canale-Smith syndrome.1 Immune system Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is an uncommon acquired confusion of disturbed lymphocyte homeostasis described by constant splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy of early beginning, hypergammaglobulinemia (Ig G and Ig An), immune system wonders, and extended populaces of T cells, called twofold negative T-cells (DN) T cells.2 Impeded Fas-initiated apoptosis of lymphocytes in vitro is a foremost element of the immune system lymphoproliferative disorder (ALPS). It is a turmoil described by summed up, nonmalignant lymphadenopathy,hypergammaglobulinemia, lymphocytosis, splenomegaly, and immune system wonders. An unmistakable component of ALPS and an early hint to its tendency, is the event of uniquely expanded numbers and level of T cell receptor (TCR)- abdominal muscle CD42 CD82, twofold negative (DN) T cells in the flow and lymphoid tissues. 3 We report the instance of a patient who had gone to our specialization with various swellings in the head and neck locale. CASE REPORT A multi year old male patient had gone to the Department of Oral drug and Radiology with the central objection of agony in the lower appropriate back district of the jaw since multi day. The patient had agony and swelling in the lower ideal back teeth district since multi day which was moderate to serious, discontinuous, disturbs on having nourishment and eases alone. His past restorative history uncovered respective neck district swellings at 1 years old and a half yrs for which he was treated with oral prescriptions. History of building up a swelling in the axilla following BCG inoculation and was analyzed as BCG adenitis and was treated for the equivalent. At 6 years old yrs he created respective neck swellings for which he was alluded to a pediatrician in 2009. Hematology report uncovered normochromic normocytic pallor with neutrophilic lymphocytosis, FNAC of the cervical lymph hub recommended necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis and was treated with oral anti-infection agents. At seven and a half yrs of age quiet created respective cervical lymphadenitis with canker development which went on for 8 to 10 months which mended with scarring. Understanding gives a background marked by a serious type of chicken pox , scars have stayed everywhere throughout the body. ESR was lifted at 110. Ultrasound of mid-region uncovered somewhat broadened inguinal lymph hubs with mellow hepatomegaly. The patient's axillary and inguinal lymph hubs biopsy example was given for histopathology and immunohistochemistry examination. A report of responsive lymphadenitis was acquired. Skin biopsy of rashes on lower appendages uncovered lymphocyte perivasculitis. Tolerant likewise gave a past filled with joint torment of his lower appendages. His HIV status was negative and his arbitrary glucose was inside ordinary limits.Ultrasound of mid-region and neck done as of late uncovered different mesenteric and non necrotic cervical lymphadenopathy. On general physical examination, persistent seemed malnourished, torpid with projected mid-region and summed up recuperated scars of chicken pox were likewise observed(Fig. 1 and 2) and scar in left inguinal region.On extraoral examination there was a very much characterized swelling on face on the correct side broadening superiorly from the mid third of the face, poorly to the submandibular district, mesially from the edge of the mouth and distally underneath the ear lobule (Fig.3). On palpation, swelling was delicate to firm in consistency, delicate on palpation with ascend in surface temperature. On review of the neck, there was a diffuse swelling of the submental and submandibular lymph hubs , raising the ear lobules. On the left half of the neck lymph expanded hub seen one beneath the ear lobule and another on the horizontal part of neck, related with scar of past biopsy (Fig. 4). On palpation, respectively submandibular and submental lymph hubs were obvious estimating roughly 3x3cm , firm to hard in consistency, settled, delicate on palpation and all cervical lymph hubs were tangible and delicate, variable in size. On intraoral examination, on investigation there was vestibular erythema and destruction with swelling in connection to 55 on the buccal vestibule and on palpation swelling was firm in consistency, with vestibular delicacy was evoked. On hard tissue examination, nearness of blended dentition and profound dental caries with delicacy on percussion positive with 55. The determination of intense compounding of constant periapical ulcer with 55 with buccal and submandibular space disease was considered. With the historical backdrop of consanguineous marriage of his folks, his more youthful kin having comparable and milder side effects with BCG adenitis, summed up unexplained lymphadenopathy, serious type of chickenpox, joint torment of lower appendages and vasculitis of skin sores and dependent on the histopathology and immunohistochemistry reports of the lymph hubs a conclusion of immune system lymphoproliferative sickness was given. The treatment given to the patient was syrup naprosyn 125mg for 5 months 6ml b.d. The treatment made arrangements for him was Fas transformation for affirmation Tab Wysolone (1mg/kg/day) with inj Methotrexate (15mg/m2 ) as a steroid saving operator Tab Shelcal/calcitriol sachet ½ sachet/month (50 mg/kg/day). The patient following multi month follow up post treatment, there is no decrease in the span of lymph hubs. His blood reports uncovered checked increment in the level of immunoglobulins. By and by the patient grumbles of inguinal agony and swelling since a half year , which has not relapsed even after treatment and he can't stroll because of the torment. In any case, the patient, on subsequent follow up visits, General appearance of the patient has made strides. (Fig. 5,). He demonstrated reduction in the span of the lymph hubs with the exception of remaining scars of the fibrosed lymph hubs in the correct horizontal cervical districts. (Fig.6, 7, 8) Dialog The immune system lymphoproliferative disorder (ALPS) is an uncommon sickness. ALPS is an uncommon acquired condition that influences both genders. ALPS for the most part does not prompt demise and most people with ALPS can live ordinary lives. ALPS is a confusion related with strange lymphocyte apoptosis, lymphoproliferation, and autoimmunity. Lympho multiplication in ALPS patients is for the most part benevolent, yet they are at expanded hazard for the improvement of Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is described by huge lympho adenopathy, splenomegaly, autoimmunity including scenes of insusceptible hemolytic weakness, thrombocytopenia,and neutropenia. ALPS patients have lymphocytosis and various lymphocyte irregularities, including the checked development of T lymphocytes that express alpha/beta T-cell receptors, yet neither CD4 nor CD8 surface markers (TCR alpha/beta+; CD4– ; CD8– cells).4 ALPS is subdivided into: 1) Type Ia, ALPS with freak Fas; 2) Type Ib, lymphadenopathy and transformation in the ligand for Fas in a single patient with fundamental lupus erythematosus; 3) Type II, ALPS with freak caspase 10; and 4) Type III, ALPS up 'til now with no characterized hereditary reason. 5 In sort 0 sickness, homozygous Fasmutations more often than not cause a total inadequacy of the Fas protein and a serious type of the disease.In ALPS type I, heterozygousFasmutations (ALPS type Ia)or, all the more once in a while, heterozygous changes in the quality for Fas ligand (ALPS type Ib)are normally connected with a fractional deformity in apoptosis intervened by Fas and its ligand. ALPS type II, which is described by protection from Fas-intervened apoptosis regardless of the nearness of ordinary Fas ligand and Fas, with caspase 10 changes. In ALPS type III, Fas-interceded apoptosis is likewise normal,and the hereditary deformity is hazy. Patients with ALPS type III might not have every one of the four exemplary highlights of the disorder — lymphoproliferation, extreme quantities of twofold negative T cells, hypergammaglobulinemia, and immune system indications. Numerous instances of ALPS type III are sporadic, blocking the utilization of a hereditary way to deal with recognize the sub-atomic imperfection 6 An examination done by Michael Sneller et al 7 to ponder the lymphocyte apoptosis, uncovered that ALPS was recognized in 9 disconnected people with moderate to enormous spleenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hypergammaglobulinemia>GET ANSWER