As part of the requirements for the course Musculoskeletal Biomechanics and Injury submit a term paper as described below.

Paper Format and Requirements – Students will submit a paper of 6-8 text pages (title page, abstract, references, etc. do not count as part of the 6-8 … sorry ’bout that) with a minimum of five primary (i.e. original research) references. Review articles may be used, but should not be counted toward the five primary articles.

The paper must be submitted in double-spaced, typewritten form with 1-inch margins on all sides. Place your title page as the last page (i.e. the front page will be your Abstract –

The title page of your paper should include only the (i) paper title, (ii) author’s name (that’s you) and, (iii) course number, course title, date, and instructor’s name (that’s me). The page following the title page should be a brief Abstract of about 200-250 words describing the purpose and major conclusions of your review paper. (Note: the Abstract should appear on a separate page, as a single paragraph, with the text of your paper beginning on a new page. Do not cite references in you Abstract.)

The format of the text should generally include (i) introduction and statement of purpose, (ii) review of literature on the topic, (iii) discussion of the results and their significance, (iv) summary and conclusion. This format may vary somewhat depending on your topic.

Speculation and independent thought and evaluation are strongly encouraged, based on what you read and discover. Mere regurgitation of facts will not receive highest credit.

Topic: A comprehensive comparison of ACL reconstruction techniques

Any tables should be typed neatly, each on a separate sheet with title above and any notes below. Explain all abbreviations. Refer to any Tables and Figures in the text. Any material taken directly from another source should be appropriately acknowledged. Graphs and drawings should be of high quality and appropriately and legibly labelled. Each figure should have a separate, fully explicit legend and all sections of the figure and all abbreviations and symbols used should be clearly defined. Figures may be presented in an Appendix at the end of the text or distributed throughout the text; your choice.

References – The articles and books you use as sources are to be listed alphabetically (by the first author’s last name) in a References section and numbered there beginning with "1". As references are cited in the text, refer to each citation by its number. The reference section should be typed double-spaced at the end of the text, beginning on a separate page, following the sample format given below. All journal titles should be spelled out. Complete information should be given for each reference including titles of journal articles, names of all authors and editors, journal name, date of publication, and inclusive pagination. Accuracy of reference data is the responsibility of the author.
"A" Paper

o Outstanding review of topic material
o Clearly written
o Extensive and incisive original/independent thought
o Follows required format precisely
o Few, if any, grammatical (including spelling and
punctuation) or typographical errors


Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.