A constituent with square brackets.

1- In the following examples, a sequence of words is marked as a constituent with square brackets.
a. The old woman gave [the minivan to her young neighbor].
b. The old woman gave [the minivan] to her young neighbor.
c. The old woman gave the minivan [to her young neighbor].
First, for each sentence, state whether the marked sequence forms a real constituent or not a constituent. Write “a real constituent” or “not a constituent”

Use the Clefting test to create a sentence to justify your answer to this question (question 1). Give the sentence that this test would lead to and say how this sentence justifies your answer. Note that if the sentence that you obtain from Clefting is odd or ungrammatical, that would mean that the bracketed sequence is not a real constituent. Make your point as clear as possible

Use the replacement test to create a sentence to justify your answer to this question (sentence b). Give the sentence that this test would lead to and say how this sentence justifies your answer. Note that if the sentence that you obtain by applying the Replacement test is odd or ungrammatical, that would mean that the bracketed sequence is not a real constituent. Make your point as clear as possible

Use the Stand-alone test to create a sentence to justify your answer to this question (sentence c). Give the sentence that this test would lead to and say how this sentence justifies your answer. Note that if the sentence that you obtain by applying the Stand-alone test is odd or ungrammatical, that would mean that the bracketed sequence is not a real constituent. Make your point as clear as possible.

Consider the following sentences:

a. The police officer chased the criminal with the car.
b. The police officer noticed the criminal in the morning.
c. The police officer arrested the criminal quickly.

One of these sentences is ambiguous. Go to http://www.tycho.iel.unicamp.br/phpsyntaxtree/ and draw the structure that reflects the first possible interpretation of that sentence. Importnat: draw the structure of the VP only (not the whole sentence!) Save the tree as a PNG image file and attach it as a file to the answer to this question. Half the points go to the correct number of nodes and half to the proper hierarchy.

Then, draw the structure that reflects the second possible interpretation of that sentence. Also here, draw the structure of the VP only (not the whole sentence!) Save the tree as a PNG image file and attach it as a file to the answer to this question. Half the points go to the correct number of nodes and half to the proper hierarchy

Draw the appropriate tree for each these sentences.

a. John met and greeted the president.
b. John met the president and greeted him.

Go to http://www.tycho.iel.unicamp.br/phpsyntaxtree/. Draw the tree for sentence (a), save the tree as a PNG image file and attach it as a file to the answer to this question.

Then, draw the tree for sentence (b), save the tree as a PNG image file and attach it as a file to the answer to this question.

Look carefully at the following data from this unidentified language. In your analysis, do not break apart words.
a) kuraha yonyhoryeno biyekomo
bow made boy
“The boy made a bow.”
b) newehyatxhe woriskomo komo
arrived women all
“All the women arrived.”
c) toto heno komo yonoye kamara
birds dead all ate jaguar
“The jaguar ate all the dead birds.”

Which one of the following is the phrase structure rule that best captures the TP in this language?
TP → VP NP
TP → VP (NP)
TP → (VP) NP
TP → NP VP
TP → (NP) VP
TP → NP VP NP
TP → VP NP NP
TP → NP NP VP

Which one of the following is the phrase structure rule that best captures the NPs in this language?
NP → N (AdjP) (D)
NP → N (AdjP) D
NP → N AdjP D
NP → N (AdjP)
NP → N (D)
NP → N V N (D)
Which one of the following is the phrase structure rule that best captures the VPs in this language?
VP → (NP) V
VP → NP V
VP → V (NP)
VP → V NP
VP → NP V (NP)
VP → (NP) V NP

Draw the tree for the sentence in (a) using the rules you posited above. Go to http://www.tycho.iel.unicamp.br/phpsyntaxtree/ and draw the tree, save it as a PNG image file and attach it to the answer to this question. Make sure you use the words from the language, not the English words.

Draw the tree for the sentence in (c) using the rules you posited above. Go to http://www.tycho.iel.unicamp.br/phpsyntaxtree/ and draw the tree, save it as a PNG image file and attach it to the answer to this question. Make sure you use the words from the language, not the English words

Sample Solution

ACED ESSAYS