Advocacy is a critical skill for APNs to have for promoting solutions to health concerns within a community. Identify a health issue in your community or state. Discuss a systems-level advocacy strategy to address the concern. In the strategy, students should identify specific groups or individuals that they would target as well as how they would target these individuals. For example, a student may choose to contact a legislator with a letter-writing campaign and would describe strategies for implementing that campaign.
tion of an international treaty is a formal mechanism whereby states consent to become legally bound by the contents of the treaty and accept the associated rights and obligations. Ratification therefore differs from signature of a treaty, as the latter shows official state intention to ratify and only binds the state informally. States’ decisions to ratify and thus commit strongly to human rights treaties have been widely analysed by international relations scholars, who can be broadly divided into four schools of thought: realist, rational institutionalist, liberal and constructivist. Rational actor models see individuals and states as rational, self-interested actors that make choices primarily through cost-benefit analyses. This rationalist perspective is taken by realists, who see ratification occurring to maximise the relative gains of states. There is a conceptual distinction between instrumental and non-instrumental that must therefore be defined. Instrumental will be seen, for the purposes of this work, as something that will accrue a benefit, and relates to some functional expectation, either material or intangible. Realists focus on instrumental motives highlights inter-state bargaining power and the possibility of great powers coercing other states through the use of material incentives or sanctions. Realists therefore see the interests of powerful states as the drivers of change. Realist scholars thus explain ratification through considerations of self-interest aided by a cost-benefit analysis, whereby states are able to gain rewards and/or avoid sanctions. This predicts that states will disregard treaties when the costs outweigh the benefits, and material benefits and drawbacks will sway decision-making. A second, more optimistic rationalist perspective is taken by rational inst>GET ANSWER