Your second data report will use the Shannon-Weiner Index to answer the following research question:
How does the biodiversity of fish populations change across depth habitats in the Indian River Lagoon?
The final data report will compare the data from this report to data that will be collected in November. Both papers involve a good deal of time and effort
on your part. Please plan ahead.
Note: All lab reports are an individual effort. You are encouraged to discuss results with your classmates, but you must write the report by yourself. Any
copying of text, graphs, charts, or figures from each other will be considered cheating and all involved parties will receive a score of 0% on the paper.
1. TITLE PAGE
A separate page including the title of the paper, your name, date, section, and the name of your TA.
2. ABSTRACT (1 pt)
The abstract is a short (one paragraph, 5-8 sentences) summary of the report. Include brief statements describing:
• Purpose (why the study was done)
• Methods (how the study was conducted)
• Results (what the study discovered)
• Implications (why the results are important).
3. INTRODUCTION (5 pts)
The introduction provides background information from the peer-reviewed literature on the topic and the study area. Describe what is already known about
the topic. Who has conducted studies similar to this one, and why? Why would someone not in this class or in the field of biology care about biodiversity?
1. General background:
• What is biodiversity, and why is it important to measure?
• Relevant background on Indian River Lagoon. Why is the IRL an important ecosystem? In what ways is this ecosystem important to the local
community? Why is it important to study fish biodiversity here?
• What have previous studies discovered about fish biodiversity in the IRL, or similar estuarine ecosystems in the region? Has diversity changed
2. Rationale, Research Question & Hypothesis:
• Rationale for this study: Why are the questions investigated during this study important? What is the potential greater significance of the findings?
• Research Question: You must address the following research question. You may add additional research questions regarding fish size or fish
1. How does the biodiversity of fish populations change across depth habitats in the IRL?
• Hypothesis: Must include two key components.
1. A statement of the predicted outcome.
2. A brief explanation of what the results will show if the hypothesis is found to be true: “If the hypothesis is correct, then…”
Note: You must cite at least 5 peer-reviewed sources in your introduction. These sources must be scholarly scientific journals- see section on references,
4. METHODS (2 pts)
Describe the methods used for data collection and data analysis. The reader should be able to repeat your study based on the information described in your
methods. When deciding how much detail to provide, ask yourself: would changing or omitting this information affect the outcome of the study?
• Study area: describe where the study was conducted. Include brief relevant habitat and weather observations.
• Sampling methods: seining protocol, how the fish were captured
• Data collection methods: what data was collected once fish were captured
• Data analysis methods: describe the Shannon Weiner Index. Explain:
1. Why the index was chosen
2. What information the index provides
3. How the index was calculated (briefly define and describe the variables). Do not forget to include both H’ and Hmax. You do not need to discuss each
mathematical step of the calculation. You also need to cite this information: cite the lab powerpoint or primary literature. Here’s how to cite the lab
Carroll, M., and Sales, R. “Lab 3 Lecture: Botanical Gardens”. Biological Discovery 2.
Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL. Fall 2017.
5. RESULTS (9 pts)
1. Describe results in writing:
Describe the results in paragraph form, using complete sentences. Highlight important patterns that will be discussed in the discussion section. Do not
discuss the significance of results here.
• Describe relationships between fish biodiversity and depth habitat. Thoroughly discuss patterns of species abundance, diversity, or evenness
observed between habitats.
• Discuss observed patterns of fish size between depth habitats. Do not simply make a list of figures and tables. Refer directly to specific figures
and tables. Example: The majority of Mojarra caught in knee-deep water were between 50 and 59 millimeters (Fig. 2).
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.