answer this question
1-Explain Burke’s theory of the sublime?
2-The sublime inspired many artists and thinkers of the Romantic era. Which two or three landmarks from the chapter most embody this theme?
1-Viewers of Manet’s Déjeuner sur l’herbe initially responded to its public display by attacking the canvas with their umbrellas. Why?
2-What kind of art has evoked a comparable response in our own time? Do some research online. Find a recent work of art that caused controversy. Summarize the reasons for the controversy and your reaction to it.
1-How did new psychology influence the birth of key movements in the arts such as expressionism and surrealism?
2-Provide specific details from three artworks from above or from your text.
Salvador Dalí, The Persistence of Memory, (1931)
• Joan Miró, Spanish Dancer, (1945)
• René Magritte, Time Transfixed, (1938)
• Max Ernst, The King Playing with the Queen, (1944)
1-After your experience in this course, describe why you feel the humanities are important ?
High society, white collar class and common laborers; these are the customary characterizations of social classes in almost all social orders on the planet. Be that as it may, imagine a scenario in which a gathering of individuals ends up being not able fit into one of these social stratums and makes a requirement for setting up an extra lower class. For this situation, a standout amongst the most noticeable issues will unavoidably surface. Such an issue was and still is a noteworthy issue that goes into the American culture particularly with the rise of the 'underclass'. This term is for the most part used to allude to individuals "at the base of, or even underneath, whatever is left of society" (Alcock, 1997). Notwithstanding, a few insights about the underclass are as yet a subject of debate. While at the same time some connect the underclass with the individuals who couldn't incorporate into the standard social orders because of their conduct and diverse culture, others simply attribute the development of the underclass to certain basic and situational factors. In this regard, the initial segment of this exposition will talk about the two methodologies: the one that puts the fault on the social qualities of the underclass and the other which is arranged towards the basic procedure that prompted the production of the underclass. The accompanying part will manage blacks as an instance of study. Also, the last part will cover one conceivable answer for this issue. A few sociologists contend that individuals having a place with the underclass are avoided from society because of their unseemly states of mind, disgraceful conduct and wrong decisions. Disciples to this view concur that the underclass "incorporates just the undeserving poor" (Jencks, 1988), since this gathering of individuals regularly shows particular conduct qualities that lead them to be "socially separated from standard examples of [society]" (Wilson, 1987). In this light, Ken Auletta (1991) partitions the underclass into four components focusing on the limits that different them from whatever is left of society. In his arrangement, he incorporates: "the latent poor, normally long haul welfare beneficiaries, " the unfriendly road hoodlums", "the hawkers" I. e. the individuals who depend on underground economy and "the damaged lushes, wanderers, destitute shopping-sack women and discharged mental patients. " To these individuals, "rough wrongdoings, sedate manhandle, adolescent pregnancy [and] joblessness" (Sawhill, 1992) move toward becoming recognizing trademarks. The underclass, in this regard, is delineated as living by a code of wilderness (Marks, 1991); a code that is filled by the breakdown of a central organization which is the family and described by the loss of any "unmistakable motivating force to learn" (Murray, 1984). In this specific situation, Murray calls attention to the regular issues that stamp the underclass including: the breakdown of families, lack of education and single-parent family. Every one of these properties not just set the underclass apart from the standard American culture yet additionally settle on welfare reliance their favored decision. For example, the development of the underclass is regularly connected with "an 'overgenerous' [system] that energizes such a 'useless' behavior"(Heisler, 1991). Taking the case of joblessness, Lawrence Mead says "The issue isn't that employments are inaccessible yet that they are often unsuitable, in pay or conditions, given that some salary is generally accessible from families or advantage programs" (Mead, 1986). This implies underclass reliance on legislative help would make disincentives to work. Another causal factor of the presence of the underclass in the American culture is the disappointment of the structure in giving a fair society. In characterizing structure, sociologists dissect the complexities of social establishments and associations in managing matters of mix and high patterns of imbalance. Thus, from a structuralist approach society is the one to fault for the development of an underclass. The American Sociologist William Julius Wilson (1987) contends that the 'tangle of pathology of the inward city' is spoken to in basic variables: Among these between related elements, chronicled isolation and segregation of the minority bunches in America prompted the rise of extensive underclass networks in the urban communities. An industrious connection between high neediness rates and rising level of private isolation clarifies Segregation part in concentrating destitution. In their investigation of isolation in the U. S, Nancy and Douglas (1998) delineated an Apartheid-American style in managing minorities in Urban regions. For sure, isolation has negative financial effects. Therefore, underclass was the consequence of significant basic financial movements that have underestimated internal urban communities positions and dislodged the mechanical parts that should give work to the minorities and for the working poor. (Darity, Myers, Carson, and Sabol, 1994). This keeps the populace from accomplishing its maximum capacity in the work advertise. Moreover, Gender Discrimination is one key component of the structuralist causation. The high rate of destitution among ladies might be seen as the result of a male centric mastery. Ladies were battling to oppose the rejection in a general public that has been truly ruled by men. Welfare programs have been composed in some approaches to trash open help for ladies. For sure this has a tendency to fortify male centric society. (Abramovitz, 1996) Moreover, social segregation was behind the insufficient human capital of the work constrain that brought about lower profitability and failure to seek business. (Darity, Myers, Carson, and Sabol, 1994) William Wilson (1985) characterizes social disengagement as takes after "the absence of contact or a supported connection with people and establishments that speak to standard society. " Indeed, urban poor experience the ill effects of the absence of help, assets and network shields. As an outcome, the troublesome communication amongst culture and conduct has delivered a confined populace from the work economy. (Wilson, 1985) the disengagement was connected to a developing focus on destitution. Another main consideration in the structuralist approach is that of Migration of the fruitful individuals from the network that prompts the decrease in social capital. (Wilson, 1987) This marvel basically made a geographic polarization. Internal urban communities are getting poorer and rural areas getting more extravagant. The procedure of recovery helped portable people yet was demonstrated unsafe for the ones who were not ready to leave the urban zones. One point of view alludes to the political factor embraced by Republicans (in America especially) the welfare programs that want to work, along these lines making a culture of destitution and the underclass. Internal city neediness is the unexpected result of open approach that was planned to ease social issues however has, truth be told, made them decline in some ways. (Wilson, 1987). Open arrangements including government helps and projects in a roundabout way influenced neediness. Open lodging for instance did not go for enhancing or remaking ghetto tenants yet rather at wiping out poor lodging (Gautreaux case in the 1970s) While trying to characterize the underclass, Time Magazine revealed that it " is made up for the most part of devastated urban blacks who still experience the ill effects of the legacy of servitude and segregation" (1997). Since Blacks constitute most of the underclass, we connected on them the two points of view beforehand broke down. As indicated by the way of life of-neediness proposition, blacks "don't have those qualities or qualities that are helpful for singular accomplishment and achievement " (Zargouni, 2007). Minority gatherings, for example, Chinese, Japanese and West Indians experienced separation but they could "ris[e] to prosperity" in view of their "exertion, thrift, steadfastness, and prescience that fabricated organizations " (Sowell, 1981). Since these attributes are missing inside African-American's way of life, blacks stayed "caught" in the "same internal urban areas ", different races could "escape" (Lemann, 1986). Lemann (1986)asserts that "the best obstruction " for blacks is their "way of life". Inside this same line, Chuch Robb recommends that the boundaries of isolation and bigotry were nullified and it is the ideal opportunity for blacks to dispose of their "reckless examples of conduct " (in Jackson, 1988). Consequently, as per this first point of view Black's social characteristics are the explanations for their disappointment in "a portion of the most extravagant urban communities on earth " (Hamill, 1988). One noteworthy scrutinize for this point of view is that the years following the Civil Rights Movement saw the ascent of a dark white collar class (Wilson, 1990). That is, Blacks demonstrated that when given equivalent openings and not too bad living conditions, they can challenge the generalizations and make progress. Following a similar line and trying to separate himself from the "way of life of neediness" proposal, Wilson (1990) demands that in spite of the fact that blacks were living in poor conditions previously the mid-twentieth century, joblessness, wrongdoings and unreasonableness were not as predominant as they are today. As per him these progressions were because of two fundamental reasons. Initially, numerous blacks lost their occupations in the assembling division which was contracted and couldn't get the new open doors in suburbia (Wilson, 1990). Second, the takeoff of the dark working class implied the expulsion of "good examples" who used to appear for the less advantaged "that instruction is significant, that solid job is a reasonable other option to welfare, and that family steadiness is the standard, not the special case" (p. 56). In his evaluation of the circumstance of blacks, Wilson does not deny that they have "ghetto-particular social attributes" (p. 137); however he recognizes that they are nevertheless the outcomes of joblessness and social detachment, as opposed to the explanations for them. He additionally demands that these attributes are "not self-sustaining" and would vanish if looked with prope>