In 1957, Congress added “under God” after “one nation” to the Pledge of Allegiance. A lawsuit was filed in California arguing that rules requiring students to recite the Pledge of Allegiance with its affirmative reference to God violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The case of Elk Grove Unified School District v Newdow (2004) went to the Supreme Court. While the Court chose to not decide the issue by arguing that Newdow did not have standing, the establishment clause was widely discussed in oral arguments. The oral argument for this case can be found on the Oyez website for online streaming or to download the MP3 file at http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2003/2003_02_1624 (Links to an external site.). Listen to the relevant selections of the argument. The school district’s attorney argues this issue at 17:16 to 26:17, and Newdow, representing himself, argues the issue from 30:17 to 44:0. What are the facts of this case? Explain the establishment clause of the First Amendment? What did the courts decide and why? Do you agree or disagree with the Court? Do you agree or disagree that the Pledge of Allegiance should be recited as “One nation under God”?
greed that many governments were worried that kingdom intervention on behalf of children will serve to relieve parents of their obligations, but it has frequently proved hard to establish a dating that isn't adverse. the e-book gives an exciting perception as to how a ways have the policymakers been a success in deliberating the viewpoints of youngsters while framing a coverage or an intervention mainly designed for them? greater recently, there has been extended emphasis at the concept that collective funding in children is crucial to the welfare of society, leaving open the volume to which the welfare of the child qua infant is a relevant consideration. reference – youngsters, changing households and welfare states edited through jane lewis (2006) https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&identification=2d6enibwwb4c&oi=fnd&pg=pr5&dq=welfare+state+and+kids&ots=bg182sn9kv&sig=dbw7gvauqpsbskdsmg1o-vxdzrw#v=onepage&q&f=fake how then do the welfare states method kids? youngsters are normally invisible in social policy debates, due to the fact frequently the own family is seen as the relevant unit and parents the final selection-makers. it is useful right here to explore the comparative take a look at of the United Kingdom and norway carried out via anne skevik (2003) titled “youngsters of the welfare nation: people with entitlements, or hidden inside the circle of relatives?” the UK historically has been towards an ‘organic’ view of the family, at the same time as norway has been towards an ‘character’ view. natural view is treating a own family as a unit, an concept extensively opposed with the aid of feminists, while, man or woman view is a deconstructed idea of treating a own family no longer as a unit with a head of household and his dependants; as an alternative, it pertains to a person, a female and a child who are linked to every other through organic and felony ties. in other phrases, norway has a policy toward mother and father and kids; the United Kingdom has a policy toward households. the latest emergence of ‘baby coverage’ in public discourse and in state level policy-making may be taken to signal a new type of cognizance of youngsters’s area in modern society – an focus of kids as a social group who've an area in welfare policy ‘in its very own proper’. the promotion of the social strong point of children changed into one of the achievements of the social movement advocating human rights for youngsters. the closing worldwide victory thus far changed into the united nations conference of the rights of the child (1989), which additionally helped to carry ‘infant policy’. kids and who makes a decision for them? – monika pareek a welfare country features at the core ideology that the services it offers ought to attain the maximum needy sections of its population. the achievement of the present day kingdom country is decided through this very idea. but, the concept of childhood and child rights that's integrated in tons of social making plans at the same time as making welfare policies desires to be wondered, for in a growing capitalist global, there are more than one factors which can be influencing the sociology of childhood, and therefore it becomes important to examine toddler rights and welfare schemes for children in a new light. for the longest time, childhood has been looked at as a time in the the human life cycle when the frame has now not obtained intellectual and organic adulthood. a concept of a pathological derangement within the person self due to positive occasions that came about in a single’s early life unearths it root in freudian theories of psycho-analysis which took the nineteenth century academia via storm and endured to dominate most of the discourses round adolescence for most of 20th century as properly. with time, the, researches within the area the sociology commenced to observe youth through the diverse lenses and no longer just psychology. to quote jenks (1996:32), the kid is “a standing of a person that's comprised through a chain of, frequently heterogenous images, representations, codes and constructs.” in fact, now ‘childhoods’ were being checked out and no longer simply one, singular type of ‘early life’. because the discourses around formative years shifted from being merely psychological to sociological, the idea that ‘adolescence’ can not be a homogenous concept and consequently a uniform set of welfare practices can not be carried out to youngsters the world over started out to be mentioned. kids in an ever-converting, globalized world have been experiencing one of a kind types of childhoods depending on the part of the sector they inhabited. therefore, there has always been felt this pressing want to view baby rights from a relativist technique as opposed to a universalist technique. the implementation on the conference on the rights of the child by means of the un has surely fostered some very substantial measures in welfare policies for kids, the best of them being that it makes the states without delay answerable for children. raising the rights of children on political and social structures, each neighborhood and worldwide has additionally proved to come to be a effective weapon for the kid rights activists internationally. however, developments in child rights at the local, country wide and int>GET ANSWER