1. How is climate change affecting sovereignty, cultural and global security issues?
In this film, Climate Refugees: The Global Human Impact of Climate Change, people discuss the fact that the climate change makes the global politics
suffers from the turbulent situation. An objective example of the climate change is global warming, which is totally caused by all human beings. Finally,
millions of people around the world are held responsible for all the serious consequences arising therefrom. Global warming brings the extreme weather
conditions and the sea levels rising, hundreds and thousands of people are getting through the terrible effects of the water floods and desertification.
Especially the Indonesia and Bangladesh are the main victims of the sea levels rising. From the film, Bangladesh is located at the sea level, every meter rise
in sea level, will result in submergence of over 40% of their coastal lands. The Maldives and Fiji islands will de disappeared in 100 years, due to the climate
change and global warming. The film said that the impacts of climate change challenge sovereignty of individuals and countries. Those climate refugees do
not have enough financial supports from their own countries. From this film, the United Nation reports that in the world, the number of environmental
refugees exceeds the political or religious refugees. A large number of climate refugees cross the countries’ territorial boundaries, which is harmful to
their home countries’ sovereignty and becomes the security threat to the host countries. For the culture, the large group of climate refugees in order to
integrate into the local society, they are highly like to lose their own cultures.

2. What is the nature and impact of law/governance on environmental refugees?
For the better living environment and life quality, climate change forces people escaping from their own country and crossing the seas and deserts, across
the boundaries to enter another country. This kind of movement will cause the total change in citizenship and lead to lots of crises in the host countries. In
this film, there is a Bangladeshi boy asked whether the American people will help the sufferers of the developing countries in poverty to face the challenges
of climate change. Except for natural calamities, human activities are another important agent of the climate change, such as industrialization, mining and
deforestation. The climate change is caused by the whole populations around the world, although the developed countries such as the North America,
because of the abundant wealth and natural resources, will not be effected by the impacts of climate change, it not means that the developed countries can
get rid of the responsibility to solve this global issue and help with the environmental refugees of other developing countries. The governments of every
country in the world have to work together to deal with the impacts of climate change and give financial or material supports to the environmental refugees.
Governments should publish the laws to limit the pollution from the factories. Decreasing the carbon emission is an effective way to relieve the victims from
the global warming. As for the host countries, governments should offer the education and employment opportunities to the climate refugees to protect
their basic human rights and avoid them depending too much on the local communities.

3. How have both your actions and inactions contributed to climate change?
Every human being should try our best to reduce the influences of the climate change. As consumers, we just care about our convenience, instead of
considering the damage to the environment during the production. In our daily life, we are encouraged to use the energy-efficient air conditioners,
refrigerators and vehicles. When we are shopping in the supermarkets or the malls, try not use the plastic bags and choose the eco-friendly cloth bags.
After drinking up the beverage bottles, we better to recycle the bottles instead of throwing them away. Besides, the renewable energy sources are the most
important way for us to protect our earth. The wind, solar and tidal energies should be rational developed and replace the traditional coal and mine. For the
transaction, choosing public transport may play a big role in reducing carbon emission and make a positive change of the global warming. In this film,
Wangari Mathai featured is very important to protect the environment, through planting of trees, reduce the carbon loading, protect the lakes and water
resources also will help to minimize the effects of the global warming and reduce the impacts of climate change.

Work Cited
1. Video project. Climate Refugees. The Global Human Impact of Climate Change. Video Project. Retrieved from http://www.videoproject.com
2. United Nations Environment Programme. “Responding to Climate Change.” United Nations Environment Programme. 2017 UNEP
www.unenvironment.org/regions/africa/regional-initiatives/responding-climate-change. Accessed 25 Feb. 2018.


Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.