Over that last 50 years Los Angeles has made vast improvements in air pollution. That has happened even as Los Angeles more than tripled in population. Even with those improvements, Los Angeles still has difficulties meeting ozone and particulate standards.
The US is putting pressure on country’s like China and India to reduce pollution, even as they continue to struggle to build their economies. The US has be accused of not allowing developing country’s to have the same opportunity to meet environmental challenges, over as long a period of time, as the US itself took. Of course, the global concern over air pollution is different today than it was 50 years ago. Discuss the issues of fairness? Some cities, like Beijing are much more polluted than any US city ever was. Air quality is actually dangerous. Discuss the conflict between development and pollution.
expectations on their followers and provide tangible and intangible rewards if these expectations are met. Similarly, followers also hold expectations from their leaders regarding their treatment and the rewards given if leaders’ expectations are met (Wang, Law, Hackett, Wang, & Chen, 2005). Therefore, followers are not considered passive role holders but they accept or reject and renegotiate the role that the leaders prescribed. In other words, there is a reciprocal process, a dyadic exchange, in which each of the parties brings different resources to be exchanged. Over time, the quality of a dyadic exchange changes, calling for role negotiations (Wang, Law, Hackett, Wang, & Chen, 2005). Previous empirical research & Study Hypotheses Edmondson (2004) argues that leader’s behaviour is one of psychological safety’s antecedents, positing that leader behaviour is influencing team psychological safety by creating salient beliefs among followers regarding the way that the leader will use power and how this may affect a follower. As well, a meta-analytic review of psychological safety found leadership to influence the team psychological safety by shaping the work environment (Frazier, Fainshmidt, Klinger, Pezeshkan, & Vracheva, 2017). In a cross-sectional study on 489 health care workers from 28 nursery teams, Raes et al. (2013) investigated how team learning behaviour is influenced by the transformational leadership and laissez-faire leadership. The results showed that team learning behaviour was better predicted by transformational leadership, due to transformational leadership being primarly related to psychological safety while it is not the case for laissez-faire leadership (Raes, Lismont, Decupyer, & van den Bossche, 2013). On the other hand, a study on organisational learning analysing teams 44 whtin community clinics in Israel concluded that transactional leadership is negatively associated with learning behaviours (Amitay, Popper, & Lipshitz, 2005). Even though the authors of the study do not link directly this correlation with the team psychological safety, they posit that obtaining valid information for learning requires psychologically safe environments that discourage the usage of defensive routines (Amitay, Popper, & Lipshitz, 2005). H1: Transformational leadership is positively related to psychological safety.>GET ANSWER