1. Analyse the issue of hacking and hacktivism?
2. Analyse the threat that sub-state groups can pose to states and institutions?
3. Analyse how sub-state groups can use cyber-technologies to improve security and rights for marginalised groups?
4. What is hacktivism and does it pose a threat, or is it a means to security?
5. How does hacktivism challenge traditional IR understandings of threat and security?
6. Is hacktivism always a cybercrime?
7. Explain how states utilise technologies for surveillance in the name of security?
8. Evaluate and discuss the tensions between state security and individual security?
9. Describe the relationship between, and relate the issue of, surveillance and cybersecurity?
10. How does the issue of surveillance link with cybersecurity (and security more broadly)?
11. Should states be able to utilise technologies to conduct mass surveillanceand do these practices make us more secure or less secure?
12. Explain what is meant by cyberterrorism?
13. Identify the debates that exist on the meaning of cyberterrorism?
14. Relate cyberterrorism to other cybersecurity issues, such as hacking and cyberattacks?
15. Is cyberterrorism qualitatively different to other forms of terrorism or violent extremism?
16. What are the potential means and targets of cyberterrorism?
17. Explain the extent to which you see cyberterrorism as a threat to individual, national and/or international security?
18. Evaluate the argument regarding cyberterrorism being a ‘constructed’ threat
19. Explain the link between cyberterrorism as a ‘constructed’ threat and international relations theory
20. Outline the potential risks of overstating cyberterrorism as a threat to international/national security.
21. Does cyberterrorism represent a threat or is it overstated?
22. What challenges do you envisage in the national and international response to cyber terrorism and What policy options would you suggest?
I could state that Guy de Maupassant's stories are simply everyday misuse of ink. Perusing the story you comprehend things you have never pondered or, by differentiate, have effectively looked in your day by day life. Nonetheless, what do individuals think? Did every one of them perceive the same the creator did? Every one of us should answer this inquiry by possess. A long time passed however plays, books on the topic, which Maupassant discussed, are as yet written work, and movies are as yet shooting, why? There are things, which we recall, and things, which we can't overlook. In this work, I will attempt to depict the story called "The Necklace" and give full and required for understanding data. The creator's individual will be discussed. In this manner, let me begin clarifying. Henry-René-Albert-Guy de Maupassant The individual of Henry-René-Albert-Guy de Maupassant is unquestionably intriguing to discuss. Maupassant's place of being conceived isn't known in positive; in any case, it was maybe the Château de Miromesniel,Dieppe. His life story is clearly worth of consideration, yet I will see the most essential and fascinating actualities of Maupassant's life to comprehend his stories better. Maupassant's relatives were respectable. His folks separated from when he was a young man of 11 years of age. Maupassant's first incipient organisms showed up when he was learning at the Rouen Lycée. Little Maupassant was picking up information and aptitudes from his companions; he enhanced his blessings and abilities, which helped him in his verse and composing. Maupassant was a government employee in the period in the vicinity of 1872 and 1880 years. Be that as it may, he had never adored working, all his spare time Maupassant spent in ladies interest. He had a nom de plume Guy de Valmont, which he utilized as a part of the articles in the daily papers. The 1880s years were profitable and critical in the life of writer, since he expounded on 300 short stories and 6 books, including travel books and even a volume of verse. Sadly, Maupassant had a syphilis (he was then just 20 years of age) that soon after drove him to the expanding of his psychological handicap. The creator utilized opiates, I think attempting to be spared from horrendous and merciless migraines he experienced. Commentators have specified that Maupassant portrays his sicknesses in a portion of his stories, giving primary characters and legends his own particular difficult enduring and battling. Allan Edgar Poe is one of those, whose stories energized Maupassant and made him to experience an indistinguishable ways from Poe did (in some fiction loathsomeness stories). Stephen King's novel "The sparkling" empowered Maupassant when he was expressing "The Inn", which is fundamentally the same as and normal to "The sparkling". I am certain it will be properly to see some Maupasant's words to comprehend his temperament in full length: Now listen deliberately: Marriage, to me, isn't a chain however an affiliation. I should be free, completely liberated, in every one of my activities - my coming and my going; I can endure neither control, envy, nor feedback as to my lead. I promise my assertion, in any case, never to trade off the name of the man I wed, nor to render him strange according to the world. Be that as it may, that man must guarantee to view meas an equivalent, a partner, and not as a mediocre, or as a faithful, accommodating spouse. My thoughts, I know, dislike those of other individuals, but rather I should never show signs of change them (Liukkonen, 2008, pg 2). "The Necklace" by Guy de Maupassant In any case, "The Necklace" at first was distributed in the daily paper "Le Gaulois" in Paris, France on February 17, 1884. It was a piece of Maupassant's accumulation of short stories called "Stories of Day and Night", which showed up in 1885. "She was one of those beautiful and beguiling young ladies conceived, as if destiny had screwed up finished her, into a group of craftsmans. She had no marriage partition, no desires, no methods for getting known, comprehended, cherished, and married by a man of riches and qualification; and she let herself be offered to a little agent in the Ministry of Education" - with these words we faces in the start of the story and meeting a primary character Madame Mathilde Loisel. She had a fantasy regular to the American dream. She needs to wind up rich and have recreation. The story shows perusers numerous things. The working class Matilda finds numerous unexpected subtleties through the story. Discussing the plot of the story, ought to be seen that Maupassant is certainly gifted, considering very little words he expected to represent numerous thoughts and issues, which stresses the humankind as the centuries progressed. The story tells about white collar class lady Matilda, who needs to awe the general public. Matilda Loisel was welcomed on the high-society issue (since her better half worked there), shockingly, she comprehended that she didn't have anything to wear. A spouse, Loisel, gave her cash to purchase a dress. Being unsatisfied, Matilda obtains a neckband from great companion Madame Forestier. After the issue, Matilda discovers that jewelry is lost. Loisels began to discover cash to purchase another neckband: Loisel had eighteen thousand franks, which his dad had abandoned him. He obtained it, requesting a thousand francs of one, five hundred of another, five louis of this one, and three louis of that one ("The Necklace, pg 7). At last, Loisels purchased a similar jewelry and conveyed it to Madame Forestier. In any case, she said to the Matilda, who was glad and cheerful to give back the accessory, that her neckband was phony and drifted around 500 francs! To give cash back Loisels need to have numerous restrictions. Ten years of Matilda's life have been looted — and for what? For a night of vanity and pride (Barthes, 2004, pg 1). Conclusion In any case, the story is effective among perusers. It shows perusers numerous valuable things. It triggers numerous feelings and emotions, particularly distress and misery. I preferred how Maupassant said in his "The Necklace": "How abnormal life is, the means by which whimsical! How little is expected to demolish or to spare!" I concur with these words. "The Necklace" is worth of consideration, without a doubt! The story is about pride going before the fall. Hardship – is the known word for Matilda, however did she know what were its reasons? All cash she earned amid ten years she paid for one night! Individuals gain from the story the amount one can pay for its pleasure and pride. Therefore, Guy de Maupassant acquired a great deal of hugeness the writing of entire world. Also, it is running without saying and any uncertainty.>GET ANSWER