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Determinism states that society, much like nature works in an orderly fashion and not as random chain of events (Cooper, Heron, Heward, 2007). A man does not simply decide his fate but instead it has been decided for him by his environment. Keep in mind that environment is not just our outside world but can fit many descriptions including the womb, biological cell changes, and various outside influences (Herbert & Weintraub, 2013). In other words a child on the Autism Spectrum behaviors are in control and not him or her. If the child is placed in certain situations their reactions are easily predetermined. This goes in sharp contrast of free will which states that man is the pilot of their faith and not the environmental factors around them. By accepting determinism society must therefore accept that the murderer is not able to stop themselves from killing but is compelled too because of their environment. Free will gives society a reassurance that law and order is able to take place not that there is a lack of culpability by the criminal or a way to easily prevent crime by a person. This means that a person must accept that it is one or the other, that the world can not be ruled by both environmentally predetermined destiny and freedom to determine ones destiny.
Subscribing to Behaviorism
B.F. Skinner wanted to have a better understanding of why people within society behaved certain ways (Cooper, Heron, Heward, 2007). He used scientific experiments to better understand why people acted and reacted as they do (Cooper, Heron, Heward, 2007). In ABA behavior analysts also follow this in a way by collecting data and graphing the results to determine both success and failure for various programs for clients. With this in mind how can a qualified analyst do this if he or she believes that the behavior may not be determined by environmental factors but also by the clients own free will? If this is the case then there is little to possibly no reason to attempt ABA. By this logic then instead of determining the function a behavior is serving an analyst should tell the parents or caregiver to punish the client more.
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.