Investigate a known or potential environmental cancer risk and compose a 600-750 word essay (approximately 2.5- 3 pages typed, double-spaced) to describe the environmental agent, where it is found and how it is contacted, the type(s) of cancer that it is implicated in, and some of the evidence that the agent is a carcinogen.
Background: The majority of cancer risk, 90-95%, is believed to be due to environmental causes. We will investigate an environmental cancer risks or a potential risk to better understand how a risk is identified and evaluated, what some of the challenges are in reducing risk, which populations are most affected, and what is being done at the policy level to address the risk.
- Select a topic. You may choose a topic from the references included at the end of this assignment.
- Write an expository or descriptive essay that includes each of these elements:
- Title: (2 pts) Clearly states the name of the environmental agent.
- Introduction: (14 pts) the first paragraph
a. Briefly define and describe the agent. Is it a synthetic (human-made) or natural chemical, a physical agent, or an infectious agent?
b. Briefly describe how was this agent was first discovered to cause cancer or appeared to cause cancer (an occupational or geographic association, a product, or other), and when?
c. What has the policy response been to this agent? Was it confirmed to be carcinogenic or is it still disputed? Are there agencies that monitor this risk—if so, what are they and how do they monitor it?
- Mechanism of action of the agent: (12 pts) Explain 2a above.
a. What is the active ingredient of the carcinogen?
b. How does it cause cancer (hormone mimic, DNA damage?)
- Where is the agent encountered (12 pts) Elaborate on 2b above.
a. Where and how are you most likely to encounter the agent–is it airborne, in food, water, associated with a particular industry or product?
b. it a problem here in the Puget Sound Region? Washington state? The US or any other particular location around the world?
- Scope of the problem caused by this agent: (12 pts) For the location of interest that you described in 4 above: How many people are get cancer as a result of exposure to the agent? In the state of WA or the US? How many die from it? Is it known?
- Conclusions: (12 pts) This section should reflect on your findings, and include at least 3 of the following:
• Do the data on this agent prove that it causes cancer, or is it not yet resolved? If it isn’t resolved, what approaches could be taken to resolve it?
• Is the public aware of this risk, and should it be? What should be done to raise awareness?
• Are there social justice issues associated with this cancer risk?
• If policies have been enacted to reduce or eliminate this risk factor, have they been effective? Are there differences in response to this risk in the US vs. other nations?
The increased level of eating disorder severity and low levels of MVPA showed associations with poor treatment outcomes, while low MVPA and depressive symptoms also showed significant associations. The similar time spent in physical activity between the healthy control and exercise group shows the ability of AN patients to respond well towards exercise. By implementing, rather than restricting, exercise and physical activity within treatment programs, treatment outcomes can see improvements. The comorbidity between depression and AN can also be addressed through exercise as less time in MVPA is linked to depressive symptoms. This relationship also suggests that exercise can present a mood-regulatory effect on AN patients along side its ability to improve functional strength. Exercise can thus provide AN patients with psychological benefits in terms of emotional well being when integrated within a treatment plan. Conclusion Exercise, as an intervention for AN, can provide the necessary physiological and psychological benefits to manage the self-restriction and excessive exercise pathologies when incorporated with re-feeding plans. The studies conducted by Toyuz et al. and Thien et al. showed the ability of exercise to provide improvements without jeopardizing any re-feeding and weight restoration efforts. This idea allows for more clinical implications of exercise interventions, in terms of its physiological and psychological benefits, to be addressed. The studies done by Chantler et al. and Vancampfort et al. provide evidence that shows exercise interventions improve muscular strength, BMI, and body composition – effects that positively influence the functional abilities of patients. Additionally, the research conducted by Calogero et al. and Sauchelli et al. demonstrated that exercise positively affected the attitudes and behaviors against excessive exercise and had an association with decreased depressive symptoms. A limitation of such studies includes their cross-sectional nature, which makes it difficult to draw causational conclusions regarding exercise and its effects. However, all these studies implemented exercise along side of re-feeding and weight restoration programs and all concluded that exercise does not have detrimental effects on weight regain. For future studies, it is necessary to explore the mechanistic features of exercise as it relates to AN to determine causational effects. Furthermore, it is important to provide exact specifications of experimental exercise interventions. Not only will this specification provide a standard to which future studies can utilize, but it also allows for mechanistic research to be focused. No standardized exercise intervention is currently used to help treat the symptoms of AN, but these promising research data on the beneficial effects of exercise on physiology and behavior can perhaps change this fact. >GET ANSWER