University Lake is a reservoir with a surface area of 8 acres and an average depth of 10 feet. The volume of the lakes is 222.2 acre-ft. University Lake receives water from stream inflow at a rate of 302 acre-ft/year (373 million L/year) with phosphorus (P) concentration of 0.045 mg P/L. Direct precipitation to the lake totals 80 cm/year and has a phosphorus (P) concentration of 0.011 mg/L. Estimated lake evaporation is 1.89 million L/year. The stream outflow from the lake is 297 acre-ft/year (366 million L/year). You can assume that the evaporation is pure water and carries no other chemicals with it. (There are 1233.5 m3 in 1 acre-ft) Show all of your work! (Hand write calculations and submit assignment in class.)
1. Draw a diagram showing all the inputs and outputs into University Lake (show flows and contaminants in a box model).
2. Determine the average residence time of phosphorus in the lake in days.
3. What is the surface area of the lake in meters squared? What is the Q (flow) of water to the lake from direct precipitation in meters cubed per year?
4. What is the concentration of phosphorus in the lake? (report in µg/L, assume that the concentration associated with the out flow equals the concentration in the lake).
Discussion Questions: address all questions in short essay format (use your text and Carlson’s paper):
1. What is eutrophication, and why is it an ecosystem effect?
2. What is the “twofold effect” of sediment pollution?
3. Based on your calculations in question 4, what is the trophic status of the lake using Carlson’s Trophic State Index? What does this trophic status imply about the lake? What would the associated Secchi depth transparency be, and what would that tell us?
4. If you could manipulate the average residence time of the lake to help reduce the amount of phosphorus in the system, what would you need to change?
5. The water from the lake will eventually drain into the Gulf of Mexico contributing to the dead zone. Explain the impact of this flow into the Gulf of Mexico. What is meant by “cultural eutrophication” (see “A Closer Look,” 19.2).
6. What are some ways that we can reduce phosphorus and nitrogen loading to lakes and streams? Consider specific best management practices (BMPs) within a watershed that would help reduce nutrient loading.
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.