Between 1450 and 1750 Western European nations discovered new continents, acquired colonies, and created new trading routes. Why did Europeans undertake these endeavors and how did it change the world? In your answer, please discuss all of the following aspects:
• The voyages of discovery, the conquest of the Americas and the establishment of colonies in the Americas
• How the Atlantic system and the transatlantic slave trade were created and how they changed Africa, the Americas and the Mediterranean
• The Columbian Exchange and how it led to global changes in ecology and diets
What caused the Industrial Revolution? How did it change the global balance of power? In your answer, please address all of the following elements:
• The main factors that contributed to industrialization in Great Britain.
• The main ways in which industrialization changed life in Europe
• How industrialization, including both the economic growth and technological advances that came with it, contributed to the success of European imperialism worldwide between 1789 and 1914
The Short Essay should have the student’s name, class and Essay Option number at the top of the first page. It should be typed, 12 point font and double spaced. It should have an introduction with a thesis statement (argument), main body and conclusion. Students should write in complete paragraphs and sentences. They should avoid grammatical and spelling errors. Students should also avoid writing in first person, e.g. “I, my, me or mine.” Essays should strive to answer all of the questions, giving specific examples for each question.
‘talk the connection between building, dwelling and the notion of ‘home,’ drawing on ethnographic examples,’ know-how constructing as a method enables architecture to be taken into consideration as a shape of fabric culture. processes of building and residing are interconnected in step with Ingold (2000), who additionally calls for a extra sensory appreciation of residing, as provided by way of Bloomer and Moore (1977) and Pallasmaa (1996) who endorse structure is a essentially haptic enjoy. a real dwelt angle is therefore set up in appreciating the connection among dwelling, the perception of ‘home’ and the way that is enframed via architecture. We should think about residing as an basically social experience as validated by using Helliwell (1996) via evaluation of the Dyak Longhouse, Borneo, to allow us to harbour a real appreciation of area without western visual bias. This bias is determined inside traditional bills of dwelling area (Bourdieu (2003) and Humphrey (1974)), which do however display that notions of home and sooner or later area are socially specific. lifestyles activities related to living; sociality and the method of homemaking as verified through Miller (1987) permit a perception of home to be set up in terms of the self and haptic architectural revel in. Oliver (2000) and Humphrey (2005) display how those relationships are glaring within the disasters of constructed architecture in Turkey and the Soviet Union. while discussing the idea of ‘building’, the process is twofold; ‘The phrase ‘constructing’ consists of the double truth. It method each “the movement of the verb construct” and “that which is constructed”…each the motion and the result’ (Bran (1994:2)). as regards to constructing as a process, and treating ‘that that is built;’ architecture, as a form of cloth subculture, it could be likened to the system of making. building as a procedure isn't always simply implementing form onto substance however a relationship between writer, their substances and the environment. For Pallasmaa (1996), the artist and craftsmen have interaction inside the constructing system without delay with their our bodies and ‘existential experiences’ in preference to just focusing on the external hassle; ‘a wise architect works together with his/her whole body and feel of self…In innovative work…the whole bodily and mental charter of the maker becomes the web site of work.’ (1996:12). buildings are built according to precise thoughts approximately the universe; embodiments of an expertise of the sector, which include geometrical comprehension or an appreciation of gravity (Lecture). The manner of bringing systems into being is consequently related to local cultural needs and practices. thinking about the building system on this manner identifies architecture as a shape of cloth tradition and allows consideration of the want to assemble homes and the viable relationships between building and residing. Ingold (2000) highlights a longtime view he terms ‘the building angle;’ an assumption that people should ‘assemble’ the sector, in consciousness, earlier than they could act inside it. (2000:153). This involves an imagined separation among the perceiver and the arena, upon a separation among the actual surroundings (existing independently of the senses) and the perceived environment, that's built within the mind in keeping with records from the senses and ‘cognitive schemata’ (2000:178). This assumption that people re-create the arena within the mind earlier than interacting with it implies that ‘acts of living are preceded by using acts of worldwide-making’ (2000:179). that is what Ingold identifies as ‘the architect’s angle,’ buildings being constructed earlier than existence commences inside; ‘…the architect’s perspective: first plan and construct, the houses, then import the people to occupy them.’ (2000:one hundred eighty). as a substitute, Ingold suggests the ‘dwelling angle,’ whereby human beings are in an ‘inescapable situation of life’ within the environment, the sector constantly getting into being round them, and different people turning into good sized through patterns of life pastime (2000:153). This exists as a pre-considered necessary to any constructing technique taking area as part of the herbal human condition.; it's miles because humans already hold thoughts approximately the sector that they're capable to dwelling and do dwell; ‘we do no longer live because we have constructed, however we construct and have built because we live, this is because we are dwellers…To build is in itself already to dwell…most effective if we are capable of living, only then can we construct.’ (Heidegger 1971:148:146, 16) (2000:186)). Drawing on Heidegger (1971), Ingold (2000) defines ‘residing’ as ‘to occupy a house, a dwelling location (2000:185). dwelling does now not need to take vicinity in a constructing, the ‘paperwork’ humans construct, are based on their worried interest; ‘inside the unique relational context in their practical engagement with their surroundings.’ (2000:186). A cave or mud-hut can therefore be a residing. The constructed becomes a ‘container for life sports’ (2000:185). building and dwelling grow to be procedures that are unavoidably interconnected, current within a dynamic courting; ‘building then, is a system that is continuously going on, for as long as humans reside in an surroundings. It does no longer begin right here, with a pre-shaped plan and end there with a completed artefact. The ‘final shape’ is but a fleeting moment in the existence of any characteristic whilst it's miles matched to a human reason…we can also indeed describe the forms in our environment as times of architecture, however for the maximum part we aren't architects. For it's far within the very procedure of dwelling that we construct.’ (2000:188). Ingold recognises that the assumptive building perspective exists because of the occularcentristic nature of the dominance of the visible in western idea; with the supposition that constructing has came about concomitantly with the architect’s written and drawn plan. He questions whether or not it is necessary to ‘rebalance the sensorium’ in thinking about other senses to outweigh the hegemony of imaginative and prescient to benefit a higher appreciation of human dwelling in the global. (2000:a hundred and fifty five). information dwelling as existing before building and as processes which are unavoidably interconnected undermines the idea of the architect’s plan. The dominance of visual bias in western idea requires an appreciation of living that entails extra senses. just like the constructing system, a phenomenological technique to living entails the idea that we have interaction in the world via sensory reports that represent the body and the human mode of being, as our our bodies are constantly engaged in our environment; ‘the world and the self tell every different continuously’ (Pallasmaa (1996:forty)). Ingold (2000) recommends that; ‘you will, in quick, stay simply as completely inside the global of visual as in that of aural experience’ (2000:156). this is something also known Bloomer and Moore (1977), who admire that a attention of all senses is important for understanding the revel in of structure and consequently living. Pallasmaa (1996) argues that the experience of structure is multi-sensory; ‘each touching experience of architecture is multi-sensory; characteristics of space, be counted and scale are measured equally by using the attention, ear, nostril, pores and skin, tongue, skeleton and muscle…structure strengthens the existential revel in, one’s sense of being in the world and this is largely a bolstered experience of the self.’ (1996:forty one). For Pallasmaa, structure is experienced now not as a set of visible photographs, but ‘in its completely embodied material and non secular presence,’ with accurate architecture supplying pleasing shapes and surfaces for the eye, giving upward push to ‘photos of memory, creativeness and dream.’ (1996:forty four-45). For Bloomer and Moore (1977), it's miles architecture that offers us with pride via needing it and residing in it (1977:36). We experience architecture haptically; thru all senses, regarding the whole body. (1977:34). The whole body is at the centre of our enjoy, therefore ‘the sensation of buildings and our feel of living within them are…fundamental to our architectural experience’ (1977:36). Our haptic experience of the arena and the enjoy of living are necessarily connected; ‘The interplay among the arena of our our bodies and the world of our living is always in flux…our bodies and our actions are in regular speak with our homes.’ (1977:fifty seven). The dynamic relationship of building and dwelling deepens then, wherein the sensory experience of architecture can't be neglected. it's miles the experience of dwelling that permits us to build, and drawing and Pallasmaa (1996) and Bloomer and Moore (1977) it is buildings that permit us to preserve a selected enjoy of that dwelling, magnifying a experience of self and being within the global. thru Pallasmaa (1996) and Bloomer and Moore (1977) we are guided towards knowledge a constructing now not in terms of its outside and the visual, but from the interior; how a constructing makes us sense.Taking this dwelt angle enables us to understand what it means to exist in a building and factors of this that contribute to organising a notion of ‘home.’ Early anthropological processes exploring the interior of a residing gave rise to the recognition of particular notions of space that were socially particular. Humphrey (1974) explores the inner area of a Mongolian tent, a own family dwelling, in terms of 4 spatial divisions and social fame; ‘The place far from the door, which faced south, to the hearth within the centre, became the junior or low popularity half of…the “lower” half…The region behind the tent at the back of the hearth become the honorific “top” component…This division was intersected via that of the male or ritually natural 1/2, which became to the left of the door as you entered…within those 4 regions, the tent became similarly divided alongside its internal perimeter into named sections. each of those become the particular sound asleep vicinity of the human beings in exclusive social roles.’ (1974:273). further, Bourdieu (2003) analyses the Berber house, Algeria, in phrases of spatial divisions and sets of oppositions; male (mild) and lady (dark), and the internal employer of area as an inversion of the outside international. (2003:136-137). in addition to this, Bourdieu concentrates on geometric houses of Berber structure in defining its internal as inverse of the outside area; ‘…the wall of the strong and the wall of the fireplace, take on two opposed meanings depending on which of their sides is being taken into consideration: to the external north corresponds the south (and the summer season) of the interior…to the outside south corresponds the inner north (and the iciness). (2003:138). Spatial divisions inside the Berber house are connected to gender categorisation and styles of movement are explained as such; ‘…the fireplace, which is the navel of the residence (itself recognized with the womb of the mother)…is the area of the female who is invested with overall authority in all topics regarding the kitchen and the management of food-stores; she takes her meals at the fireside while the man, turned toward the out of doors, eats inside the center of the room or in the courtyard.’ (2003:136). styles of motion are also attributed to additional geometric residences of the house, consisting of the path wherein it faces (2003:137). in addition, Humphrey (1974) argues that people had to take a seat, consume and sleep of their exact locations in the Mongolian tent, so one can mark the rank of social class to which that person belonged,; spatial separation due to Mongolian societal division of labour. (1974:273). each debts, even though highlighting specific notions of area, adhere to what Helliwell (1996) recognises as traditional structuralist perspectives of residing; establishing peoples in terms of agencies to reserve interactions and sports among them. (1996:128). Helliwell argues that the merging thoughts of social structure and the shape or form of structure ignores the significance of social process and overlook an existing form of fluid, unstructured sociality (1996:129) that is because of the occularcentristic nature of western thought; ‘the bias of visualism’ which gives prominence to seen, spatial elements of residing. (1996:137). Helliwell argues according with Bloomer and Moore (1977) who recommend that architecture functions as a ‘level for movement and interaction’ (1977:fifty nine). thru evaluation of Dyak people’s ‘lawang’ (longhouse community) social area in Borneo, with out a focus on geometric components of longhouse architecture, Helliwell (1996) highlights how dwelling area is lived and used day after day. (1996:137). A more correct evaluation of the use of area within dwelling may be used to higher recognize the process, specially with regard to the meanings that it generates on the subject of the notion of home. The Dyak longhouse is a massive structure built at up to three and a half of metres above ground with a thatched roof stretching up to 8 metres in height. in the longhouse are some of residences side with the aid of aspect. these are seven names areas jogging the period of the longhouse that are defined because the “internal” place of the longhouse; the cooking, eating and drowsing place. An “outer” gallery are can be used by absolutely everyone, freely at each time. (1996:131-133). previous structuralist categorisation of these internal and outer regions as ‘public’ and ‘private’ domains have led to misrepresentation of relations between man or woman families and the wider longhouse community (1996:133). Spatial separation lies between ‘us’ the longhouse network (‘lawang’) and people outdoor of the longhouse network ‘them.’ (1996:one hundred thirty five). Helliwell’s popularity of the lack of spatial department inside the longhouse network is the number one indicator of a greater fluid sort of sociality for the Dyak human beings. She highlights that previous structural approaches denoting each apartment as ‘personal’ has left little awareness of social relationships that operate among flats, and considers the longhouse as a single structural entity, regardless of the single residences that it's far composed of; ‘…relationships are honestly marked: neither the seven spaces, nor the wall among ‘swah’ (the sector ‘out there’) and ‘lawang’, forestall at the rims of any person apartment. alternatively, they retain in identical form, into those on either facet and so forth down the entire duration of the longhouse.’ (1996:137).The partition among apartments in the longhouse marks the edge of one apartment from any other which visually appears to split. however, Helliwell points out that they may be composed of vulnerable bark and materials stacked towards each other, leaving gaps of all sizes inside the partitions. sooner or later, animals bypass via, people hand matters backward and forward and neighbours stand and speak to each other (1996:137-138). She describes the partitions as ‘a exceptionally permeable boundary: a diffusion of resources moves thru it in both directions.’ (1996:138). it's miles the permeable partition that is therefore the center of longhouse sociability; its houses stimulate sharing according with a go with the flow of mild and sound from one give up of the longhouse to the other. (1996:138). ‘A network of voices’ exists inside a longhouse, flowing up and down its duration as invisible speakers seem in monologue. The Dyak humans, despite the fact that invisible to each other, speak to their neighbours thru these permeable obstacles in persistent speak; ‘…they are profoundly present in each other’s lives. thru the sounds of their voices, neighbours 3, 4 or five flats apart are tied into every other’s worlds and every different’s enterprise as in detail as if they were inside the identical room.’ (1996:138). these voices create what Helliwell describes as ‘a tapestry of sound,’ containing descriptions of a day’s occasions, feelings of character ladies shared at the same time as they may be on my own in her condominium, in the end putting forward and recreating social connections throughout every condo and reaffirming their part within the longhouse community. (1996:138-139). in addition, Helliwell highlights that their voices had been not raised; ‘(their) very mutedness reinforced, the experience of membership in an intimate, privileged international…gentle and beneficiant in their reminder of a companionship continuously at hand.’ (1996:139). here we begin to see Helliwell’s belief of fluid sociality and the enjoy of residing as an entire a social one. further to sound, the social fluidity of dwelling in a Dyak longhouse is bolstered through light from character apartments and their hearths flowing up and down the longhouse at night time. anyone is aware of their neighbours’ presence, with the absence of mild from an condominium upsetting problem. (1996:139). In essence, Helliwell stresses the sociality of residing, other than spatial appreciations of the structure in which it takes location. despite the fact that walls mark the distance of a Dyak household, they concomitantly comprise a family into the wider longhouse network; ‘it's miles this dual flow (sound and light) which constitutes each ‘unbiased household’ as coterminous with all others and with the longhouse community as a whole.’ (1996:138). This introduction of community brings to light the approaches in which humans use architecture, no longer just to mark divisions of space, but to enforce and enable sociality. this is incredibly relevant for a real anthropological appreciation of dwelling and specifically its relationship with the notion of ‘domestic.’ residing is unavoidably related to the technique of homemaking thru its components of sociality as a bodily and physical experience inside ‘the constructed’ (brand 1994:2) and as a essentially social enjoy. structure as a physical form of shelter that enframes the manner of homemaking; what Ingold (2000) phrases ‘existence activities’ (2000:185) and the coming together of people. via acknowledgement of the social aspects of living we can set up notions of ‘home,’ which can be typically constructed on the dynamic relationship of constructing and residing and the aspects of sociality that occur through the residing technique; ‘lifestyles sports’ (Ingold (2000:185) and domestic-making, concerning, kinship, memory, play, consuming, ritual, and birth amongst other anthropological themes. A relationship emerges then, between residing and the belief of ‘home,’ a dynamic dating facilitated by means of ‘the constructed,’ (logo (1994:2)) taking vicinity inside structure. homes are defined via Carsten and Hugh-Jones (1995) as ‘places wherein the to and fro of lifestyles unfolds, constructed, changed, moved or deserted in accord with the changing occasions of their inhabitants.’ (1995:1). ‘domestic’ emerges as an architectural space which enframes the strategies and characteristics associated with dwelling. Ingold (2000) suggests that a house is made, no longer constructed (2000:175). extra particularly, Miller (1987) draws interest to the manner of home-making thru which “the built’ becomes a ‘home’ via a process of intake and appropriation through tenants on a London council estate in England. He argues that thru consumption and appropriation in their home space, tenants are capable of broaden and establish a sense of self (1987:354). that is in response to feeling like “passive recipients” of housing, alienated from society by way of being perceived as a selected elegance and at a stage of poverty. (1987:357). Miller argues; ‘at the complete…there was huge evidence to suggest that the white population felt a deep unease approximately their family intake fame as tenants, meditated in resentment and feelings of being stigmatised. moreover they in reality associated the fitments supplied inside the kitchen with the council, as objects embodying of their materiality the intrusive signification in their reputation.’ (1987:365-366). In reaction, tenants converted and changed their kitchens in distinctive approaches after having been given the identical basic centers via the council. (1987:356). This included changes and renovations to fitted cupboards, wellknown plumbing and electricity supplies and original black lino flooring in addition to decorations, curtains and new white items (1987:357). For Miller, kitchens became ‘canvases’ (1987:360) for the tenants; ‘the most important cluster comprised kitchens where substantial modifications have been made to the ornamental order…these kitchens retained the unique simple white surfaces. as a substitute, a massive variety of additional items were delivered in and used, because it have been, to cowl the cupboards up….teatowels, breadboards, teacosies and trays had been very commonplace and regularly related to a specific aesthetic of large ambitious plant life, cats, puppies and bright patterns. in addition to being positioned on surfaces, breadboards and trays were generally positioned vertically towards the partitions with their face forward to emphasize their decorative nature. put up-playing cards, souvenirs, cuttings from magazines and pictorial calendars might be hung or caught on the partitions…there was also the ‘biographical pattern’…every piece seemed to be a momento of own family or vacations, as in the commercial nostalgia fashion wherein the relation among gadgets became maintained inside the reminiscences of the occupants however no longer expressed visually.’ (1987:361-362). Tenants’ properties finally became personalized, changing and diverting attention from factors in their kitchens they noticed as signs in their bad housing reputation (1987:362). The implementation of kitchen aesthetics and other modes of creativity is one manner of home-making, setting up a notion of ‘home’ in accordance with establishing a experience of self. related to this, is the sociality of home making; aspects of marriage and kinship additionally highlighted via Miller, with females directing and viewed as ‘recipients of expenditure’ and adult males mission renovations; ‘In cases it was mainly clean that the couples were seen as coming together to overcome their repute as tenants, and asserting the power of kinship and marriage on this struggle.’ (1987:367). The belief of ‘domestic’ reaffirms the idea that area is socially particular; the method of homemaking as an component of dwelling, associated with how we live within time and space. whilst expert architects and builders forget about the desires, responsibilities and beliefs of socially specific humans, the perception of ‘domestic’ becoming disrupted, the result is an unsuccessful living area. Oliver (2000) underlines that when the Kutahya Province in Turkey suffered an earthquake in 1970, fifty thousand homeless people have been accommodated in fifteen thousand newly constructed dwellings. (2000:121). He remarks that the accommodation, designed by using architects, turned into ‘suitable for the British 2.2 nuclear circle of relatives’ as three room, single storey houses, ‘quite unsuited to the prolonged peasant families,’ who were used to dwelling at the top flooring of huge two storey houses, garage, plants and livestock underneath them.(2002:121). A maximum of eighteen people lived in a house at one time, mother and father occupying one room, sons, their other halves and kids in others. The couch changed into a communal space for food, and privateness changed into ‘strictly guarded.’ (2002:121). The emergency housing was small and flawed for the massive peasant families; big home windows precipitated them to be on display, there was no sofa and the residing room opened on to the bedrooms. the bathroom turned into ‘outside and public’ even though the people have been ‘discrete approximately physical capabilities.’ (2000:121-122). In supplying incorrect homes inconsiderate closer to socially specific thoughts of area, earthquake victims had no desire however to just accept the supplied housing or receive no different assist. (2000:122). Oliver (2000) shows the architect’s failure, who; ‘may additionally layout responsibly, but the procedure fails whilst he ignores the values, morals, constructing competencies, enjoy and wisdom of the cultures whose housing desires are to be met.’ (2000:one hundred twenty five). Notions of ‘home’ can be numerous, however ‘domestic’ and living are necessarily related via stories and particular conceptions of a way to stay in phrases of appropriate space and related sports. different state built homes have triggered the notion of ‘domestic’ and its relationship with living and architecture to be affirmed. Soviet construction of communal dwellings for the duration of the Twenties onwards tried to impose which means on population; that of socialist infrastructure to produce socialist ladies and men devoid of individuality and a bourgeois manner of existence (Humphrey (2005:40)). The end result changed into unsuccessful, population no longer adopting socialist ways of being, but the meanings the structure changed into intended to impose being subverted in Russian fiction and memoirs; examples of Russian creativeness.(2005:43). This Soviet example illustrates that which means can not be made via architecture and emphasises Miller (1987) and the technique of home making. it's miles the method of home-making; the sports associated with residing and the sociality that it generates that establishes a ‘domestic,’ a constructing being simply a container in which this takes area. the relationship among building and ‘domestic’ therefore entails how we stay in time and space, the procedure of homemaking difficult the structures that we build. Ingold (2000) indicates that dwelling is some thing that allows constructing. the opposite point of view might be that it's far constructing that enables humans to stay within architecture. something one’s view, it's far inevitable that dwelling takes place, and ultimately maintains to take location inside architecture, whether that is in vernacular form; a cave, hut or a barn, or supplied by means of the nation kingdom. it's miles a social fact that human beings construct and live. constructing and dwelling are necessarily interconnected, existing in a dynamic courting with one another. know-how this from a point of view missing in western visual bias, it is the technique of dwelling; ‘life activities’ (2000:185), its sociality and inevitable reference to building that exists on the subject of the notion of ‘home.’ meaning isn't always made inside the shape of a building – it is living; sports and social members of the family that creates and permits a meaning of ‘home’ to be mounted in accordance with the self thru haptic architectural experience and the house-making process. Pallasmaa (1996) argues that the meaning of a building is beyond structure; ‘The ultimate meaning of any building is past structure; it directs our cognizance again to the sector and closer to our very own experience of self and being.’ (1996:forty two). the connection is obvious whilst socially precise conceptions of space and necessarily particular notions of ‘domestic’ are disregarded; the structure being fallacious for dwelling, or failing in its primary cause of implementing meaning. it can be said that constructing, residing and notions of ‘domestic’ are united in an overarching relationship between humans and their lived environment; the look for meaning and established order of the self, in this example through types of architectural revel in. Bibliography Bloomer, okay. & Moore, C. (1977) ‘body, memory and structure,’ Yale university Press Bourdieu, P. (2003) ‘The Berber house,’ in Low, S. & Lawrence-Zuniga, D. (eds.) ‘The Anthropology of area and place’ Blackwell, Oxford logo, S. (1994) ‘How homes examine: what occurs after they’re built.’ Phoenix, London Carsten, J. & Hugh-Jones, S. (1995) ‘approximately the house,’ Cambridge university Press Heidegger, M. (1971) ‘building, dwelling wondering’ in ‘Poetry, language notion,’ trans. A. Hofstadter. new york, Harper and Row in Ingold, T. (2000) ‘The notion of the surroundings’ Routledge, London. Helliwell, C. (1996) ‘space and Sociality in a Dyak Longhouse’ in Jackson, M. (ed.) (1996) ‘matters as they're’ Bloomington: Indiana college Press Humphrey, C. (1974) ‘internal a Mongolian Tent’ in New Society 235-275 Humphrey, C. (2005) ‘Ideology in infrastructure: structure and Soviet imagination,’ journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute eleven (1) 39-58 Ingold, T. (2000) ‘The notion of the environment,’ Routledge, London. Kahn, L. (1973) ‘shelter,’ Bolinas, shelter publications. Miller, D. (1987) ‘Appropriating the kingdom on the Council estate,’ in guy (NS) 23, 353-372 Oliver, P. (2000) ‘Ethics and Vernacular structure,’ in Fox, W. (ed.) (2000) ‘Ethics and the built surroundings,’ Routledge, London. Pallasmaa (1996) ‘The Eyes of the pores and skin,’ Academy versions>GET ANSWER