Respond to the mandatory question then respond to 2 other questions.
Whether the group leader likes or dislikes a potential member is not an appropriate basis for selecting members of a group. What are the goals of screening? During the individual session, the leader or co-leaders might look for evidence that the group will be beneficial to the candidate. What questions should be asked in the screening? Screening and selection procedures are subjective and the intuition and judgment of the leader are crucial. What concerns should the group leader have? If you are not able to select members for your group, what should you do?
1) In a Discussion of group rules and guidelines for initial group sessions with all members present to increase members’ sense of owner-ship in the group process, what would you would you review with the group members?
2) What are five general areas that could serve as guidelines for forming a proposal for a group? Should you include in your proposals for groups the procedures you intend to use to evaluate both the individual member outcomes and the outcomes of the group as a unit?
3) The “ Best Practice Guidelines” ( ASGW, 2008) state that prospective members should have access to relevant information about the group. List the information needed. How can you give an accurate picture of the group? How can your agency colleagues help in announcing and recruiting for a group?
4) In assessing and choosing members for a group what factors are important to consider? If you do not accept people for the group, what would you do? When individual screening is not practical, what alternative strategies could you use?
5) What are homogeneous and heterogeneous groups? What specific target population with given needs is best for homogeneous and heterogeneous groups? Explain why.
6) What factors would you consider when deciding the desirable size for a group? How often should a group meet? What should the duration of a group be? Where might the group hold its meetings? What are things to be considered in Open versus Closed groups?
7) Pregroup orientation is a standard practice for members of short- term therapy groups. A number of What factors make such orientation sessions necessary for clients? How could a preliminary meeting of all those who were thinking of joining the group help when individual interviews are impractical? What needs to be clarified in pregroup meetings ? Ideally, confidentiality will be discussed during the individual interview, but it is so important to the functioning of a group that you need to restate it periodically during the life of a group. At the pre-group session, what do you need to state about confidentiality?
8) How should co-leaders prepare themselves for a group?
Introduction The purpose of this report is to discuss the current state of food and environment in the field of natural resources like soil, ocean, climate and melting glaciers and their affects. By examining a range of academic articles in summary books, newspaper articles and internet sites on the topic of food and environment, this report states the situation of natural resources, environment pollution, over development and some global phenomenon caused by global worming and melting glaciers. The report then considers the further development and global worming, melting glaciers effect on food and environment. Floods and droughts In the beginning of this essay, the issue of how environmental disasters impact food will be discussed. It is clear that our "Mother Earth" is getting hotter, with the effect of global warming. It is because of "Greenhouse effect" which is due to the massive and rapid development of several industries from developing countries. It was proved that the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased "from 316 ppm in 1958 to 385 ppm in 2008" (Kirkham 2011, p.370). It has worsened the issue of melting glaciers; which, in turn, causes flooding and droughts over many areas in the world. The high percentage of glacier melting is the main reason of the rise of sea level which causes floods in over the world. Unexpected floods could impact seriously on crops growth, it "can have a negative effect on the financial performance of farming as a result of crop damage â€¦ reduced crop and livestock yield and quality/condition" (Thorne, Evans and Rowsell 2007, p.130). It means that flooding does not only affect the quantity but the quality of food source as well. For instance, a recent flooding that happened in 25th of August in 2012 in Burma after several weeks of continuously raining has driven eighty-five thousands of people homeless as well as more than two hundred thousand hectares of rice field "have been swamped" (The Guardian 2012). It was also expected to require a long time for the people and fields to recover. While there are countries that are struggling with floods, drought is also a problem in others because the weather changes wind patterns that moves cloud and humidity through the air that causes the imbalance in water distribution. Since May this year, North Korea has been suffering the most severe drought in 105 years which threatened to damage this country's "breadbasket", especially when this country has already experienced a critical lack of food. North Korean was also notified an estimate amount of 3.5 million people are with the risk of malnutrition and famine (The Telegraph 2012). Because of these destructions, it is possible that in the near future, countries using rice as a main food will have to face with a huge shortage of food, while Burma and North Korea are considered sources for rice suppliers. Furthermore, even if the amount of food could be sustained, its quality is unsure due to the pollution issues. Marine pollution Marine pollution can be traced back as early to the Roman times. Industrial waste, farm runoff and trash dumping into the oceans have caused much imbalance to the ecosystem in which many organisms thrive in. Despite many efforts made by eco-friendly organizations and campaigns to reduce pollution, it is still happening at a large scale. Pollution is essentially the introduction of harmful contaminants not part of a natural ecosystem. They may range from the man-made pollutants like chemicals, pesticide, industrial residue, oil, sewage, plastics and other solids. These contaminants end up contaminating not only the water in which much of the marine life live in but they also cause a disruption in the global food chain. When fish consume these contaminants, humans are simultaneously affected as they catch and eat the fish. Therefore, radioactive or poisonous contaminants may drastically harm us and as such pollution does affect us as much as it does the marine ecosystem. Excessive pollution may even cause any entire ecosystem to collapse and thus fishing may be near impossible once this happens. Fish will become scarce as an entire food chain will be broken beginning with water in the ocean being unsuitable for inhabiting. Oil spills Oil spills are usually the most common of all marine pollution. Much of it comes from spillage from large ships and vessels as well as oil rigs. In addition, drainages and rivers also transport oil into the oceans from cities and industry. As oil's density is lesser than water, it usually stays at the surface which causes sea mammals and birds to be affected much more than fishes as it causes these animals to die when they drink the water or come out to the surface to die due to the toxins of the oil. Sewage disposal Another cause of pollution if sewage disposal. Much urban sewage that is dumped into the ocean is untreated or under treated. Sewage alone contains much bacteria and even diseases. Fishes may sometimes eat these sewage and the bacteria may then thrive in them. This affects us when we catch and later consume the fishes, causing the bacteria to then be transferred into our bodies. Aside from affecting us in that manner, humans may also be affected by the diseases in the water and beaches closures may occur. Toxic chemicals Toxic chemicals make up the bulk of marine pollution. Much of these toxic chemicals are dumped into the oceans deliberately despite much international laws banning such dumping. Accidental leakages from industries also cause these chemicals to disseminate through soil, water and through water vapour in the air. From the tiniest organisms in the ocean such as plankton to larger animals up the food chain like polar bears. They become affected by these chemicals as they are able to travel long distances through currents in the ocean. People, who are at the highest end of the food chain, end up consuming the highest chemical load as it is multiplied up the food chain. To conclude, our food is largely dependent on the physical environment that it comes from. Pollution causes much disarray to the purity and freshness of our food as it affects us directly once we eat them. Fish that has been tainted by toxins from chemicals may cause cancer, damage to immune systems, behavioral problems, reduced fertility and even death in extreme cases. Global warming and its effects on sea levels Global warming is causing a drastic problem to humans and their food source alike, namely fish, by causing alarming increases in sea levels. The cause of global warming is initiated by the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is when the sun's heat is trapped in the earth's atmosphere when greenhouse gases cause it to be radiated back to earth. Normally, some heat from the sun is absorbed into the earth's surface while the rest is radiated back to space. When humans burn fossil fuels like petroleum, natural gas and coal, they create excessive amounts of carbon dioxide which are the major components of greenhouse gases. When excessive heat is trapped in the earth's atmosphere, this causes our earth to heat up beyond normal temperatures. This increase in temperature is causing ice caps on Mount Kilimanjaro and ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland to melt. When this happens, water levels will rise which will cause many problems which will upset the balance in nature. Cold water fish will not be able to survive as the water would be too warm. This would cause problems for people fishing them as a food source. Even coral reefs are dying as a result of the increase in water temperatures. This in turn could cause many species of fish who call it home to die which could in turn affect humans fishing for them. Another great drastic issue is raising water levels. Research has shown that low lying nations like the Maldives could be completely submerged should this occur. "Such a rise would have a devastating impact on low-lying island countries, such as the Indian Ocean's Maldives, which would be entirely submerged." (Stefan Lovgren, 2004). Densely populated areas like Nile Delta and Bangladesh would become uninhabitable as well. Not only will fishing be difficult but people will have a greater problem at finding higher ground suitable for living. An imbalance in nature's food chain would be caused by global warming that could drastically affect fishes as food source. As ice sheets melt in the Antarctic, the polar bears living would be adversely affected as the temperature would be increasingly too warm for them to live in. "Polar bears are entirely dependent on sea ice, you lose sea ice, you lose polar bears." (Jay Malcolm, 2004). Hence, they may not be able to survive and the seal and sea lion population that would otherwise be controlled by the polar bears as part of their diet would multiply and overpopulation may occur resulting in many fishes being eaten and depleted. This depletion would be a negative factor for fisheries and human civilizations living in the northern hemisphere would have to then look for an alternative food source which would be difficult as their main source of protein and food are fish. Intrusion of sea water The rise in sea level also leads to the intrusion of sea water. As the development environment for rice crops is the fresh water, the increased salinity in soil can hinder rice growth and affect rice production. A study carried out by World Bank (2000) indicates that increased salinity alone from a 0.3 meter sea level rise will cause a net decrease of 0.5 million metric tons of rice production. Some low-lying deltas (which are the major rice crops in the world) of such river systems as the Ganges, the Mekong, the Nile, the Yellow, and so forth, have been affected by tidal wave. For example, as reported by FAO (1998), there were estimated amounts of 650,000 ha of saline soils along the coastal belt in the Mekong River Delta and 350,000 ha in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. The release of pesticides Water in lakes or rivers where the melting glacier flows through can be contaminated with pesticides. Some types of pesticides which contained harmful elements used to be used in agricultural production but they then were banned worldwide years ago. Most of the pesticides evaporated into the air and were finally trapped in layers of glaciers. Now, the rapid glacial melting is causing these hazardous chemicals to be released back into the environment, lakes, and rivers. For example, organochlorine is a type of pesticide having harmful contents. It was banned in entire USA due to its bad effects on humans' health like leading to headache, dizziness, muscle weakness, or even cancer (Delaware Health and Social Services, 2010). This chemical, according to Blais (2001), shows an increase in one of the sub-alpine lakes in Canada. Such type of contamination can bring about negative impacts on the underwater ecology and creatures, while at the same time affects the source of water used for humans' life as well as farming.>GET ANSWER