1. A gene has two alleles. The frequency of the dominant allele is 0.65. What is the frequency of the recessive allele?
  2. Liver is a brown color found in Dalmatian dogs, producing brown spots on the dog instead of the traditional black. Liver is recessive to black, and the frequency of liver in Dalmatians is 21%. What is the frequency of the recessive liver allele in Dalmatians?
  3. The ABO blood group is controlled by three alleles, A, B and O. A and B are codominant, such that if a person inherits one of each they are blood type AB. O is recessive to both A and B. A population of people are genotyped and have the following numbers are counted:

Blood Type Number
AB 6
AO 19
AA 8
BO 23
BB 10
OO 34

What are the frequencies of the A, B and O alleles?
  1. In a large, randomly mating herd of cattle, 16% of the newborn calves have a certain type of dwarfism because of a homozygous recessive allele. What is the frequency of the recessive dwarfism allele?
  2. What is the frequency of heterozygous carriers in the herd?
  3. Rhode Island Red chickens lay, on average, 6 eggs per week. You raise Rhode Island Reds and want to increase egg production in your flock. You select the top 25% of your egg layers to breed – these chickens lay, on average, 8.5 eggs per week. After you breed them and the offspring grow to maturity, the offspring lay, on average, 7.1 eggs per week. What is the heritability of egg laying in Rhode Island Red chickens? Genetics
  4. You are a population geneticist studying a particular disease, which is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. In the population you are studying, the incidence of the disease is 2%. You need to determine answers to the following questions:

• Calculate the frequency of the normal allele and the disease allele in this population.
• What percentage of your population are carriers for this disease?
• What will be the incidence of this disease in the following generation?
• If this disease is fatal in childhood, what will be the frequency of the normal and disease alleles in the parental generation (breeding adults)?
• If the disease is fatal in childhood, what will be the incidence of the disease in the following generation?

  1. You are a geneticist studying the frequency of coat color alleles in a local rabbit population. Rabbits that carry two dominant alleles of a particular gene (BB) are brown, while 3.5% of the population are homozygous for the recessive allele (bb) and are white. Heterozygotes (Bb) are mottled, a mixture of brown and white. Assuming this population is in HWE, what percentage of rabbits do you expect to be brown, and what percentage do you expect to be mottled?

As it turns out, this population is not in HWE. You sample 1,000 rabbits and find the following:

752 Brown rabbits
210 Mottled rabbits
38 White rabbits

After observing this population, you find that due to their white coloring, 90% of white rabbits die from predation before they can reproduce. Additionally, 50% of mottled rabbits die from predation before reproducing. Given this information, what do you expect the frequencies of brown, mottled and white rabbits to be in the next generation?

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.