Write a paper of 750-1,000 words examining the influence of your personal values and beliefs on your thoughts regarding health care policy. Include the following in your response:
Describe your personal values and spiritual beliefs.
Using the elements of cost, quality, and social issues to frame your description, discuss your beliefs and opinions about health care policy. Give examples of relevant ethical principles, supported by your values.
Analyze how factors such as your upbringing, spiritual or religious beliefs/doctrine, personal and professional experiences, and political ideology affect your current perspective on health care policy.
Examine any inconsistencies you discovered relative to the alignment of your personal values and beliefs with those concerning health policy. Discuss what insights this has given you.
onal actor models see individuals and states as rational, self-interested actors that make choices primarily through cost-benefit analyses. This rationalist perspective is taken by realists, who see ratification occurring to maximise the relative gains of states. There is a conceptual distinction between instrumental and non-instrumental that must therefore be defined. Instrumental will be seen, for the purposes of this work, as something that will accrue a benefit, and relates to some functional expectation, either material or intangible. Realists focus on instrumental motives highlights inter-state bargaining power and the possibility of great powers coercing other states through the use of material incentives or sanctions. Realists therefore see the interests of powerful states as the drivers of change. Realist scholars thus explain ratification through considerations of self-interest aided by a cost-benefit analysis, whereby states are able to gain rewards and/or avoid sanctions. This predicts that states will disregard treaties when the costs outweigh the benefits, and material benefits and drawbacks will sway decision-making. A second, more optimistic rationalist perspective is taken by rational institutionalists who focus more on absolute gains while recognising that states have common interests and can benefit from cooperation. States are still self-interested but use institutions to look beyond this self-interest and help cooperation, as they aim to develop shared expectations of behaviour. States are seen as having a long-term preference for restraint, and commit to abide by laws as an instrumentally advantageous guide for behaviour. In this way, ratification may be explained by the presence of law-respecting instrumental arguments and the desire to build and maintain expectations of behaviour. Hathaway (2002) highlights how reputation can be a main mechanism for rational institutionalists, as repeated cooperative interaction in international institutions relies in part on predicting the behaviour of others. The threat of, or actual, harm or ben>GET ANSWER