- Gerald Graff begins his essay with the view that we generally associate “book smarts” with intellectuals and “street smarts” with anti-intellectualism. Graff then provides an extended example from his early life to counter this viewpoint. What do you think of his argument that boyhood conversations about sports provided a solid foundation for his later intellectual life? What support does he provide, and how persuasive is it?
- Graff argues in paragraph 13 that the intellectual world is much like the world of team sports, with “rival texts, rival theories . . ., and elaborate team competitions.” Can you think of any examples from your own experience that support his assertion? In what ways do you think “the real intellectual world” is different from the world of team sports?
- So what? Who cares? Graff does not answer these questions explicitly. Try doing it for him: Write a brief paragraph saying why his argument matters and for whom.
- Graff argues that schools should encourage students to think critically, read, and write about areas of personal interest such as cars, fashion, or music–as long as they do so in a serious way. What do you think? How would you respond to Graff’s claim?
ctics, most ‘ship of the line’ naval engagements fought in the ‘Napoleonic Wars’ followed a common pattern. As Bennet states, fleets practiced“tactical orthodoxy” (Bennet, 2004), a method of naval fighting dating back a hundred years; Aa line of ships – hence the name ‘ship of the line’ – sailed astern of one another. they would sail towards another line of ships similarly arranged on the same tack. The two lines would position themselves side by side, exchanging broadsides until one side would retreat or surrender. The Battle of Trafalgar was an exception to this tactical rule, with Lord Nelson forming two lines of ships instead of one and sailing them at a 90 degree angle to the towards a perpendicular French fleet. Historians including Charles Ekins argue the approach was “unusual but decisive” (Innes, 1912) and provided a surprise tactic that the allied fleet couldn’t anticipate, providing an advantage to the British that directly chiefly led to victory. In contrast, Naval treaty writer, John Clerk of Eldin, advocates that the tactic had already been used by Rodney at the Battle of the Saints, during the 1782 Antilles campaign, by Howe during the Glorious First of June (1794), and by Duncan at Camperdown (1797) (González-Aller, 1989). A tactical innovation did indisputably come out of the Battle of Trafalgar as both Nelson and Collingwood’s flagships led the British lines into the French. (Grove, 2015) This was unprecedented as before, flagships would situate themselves in the middle of the line for protection. The importance of issue with this is the fact that the flagships were always the most heavily armed and largest ships of the fleet. By locating the largest ships at the front, Nelson maximised the damage output of his fleet. Although the tactics Nelson employed did not conform with most naval engagements of the time, it would be naïve to assume the allied fleet could not anticipate it. Regardless of what formation each side devised, a key component to execute any naval attack lies in the ability to use the wind to one’s advantage.>GET ANSWER