- Barbara Christian discusses “hieroglyphics” in relationship to Black theorization. Explain her argument.
- Barbara Christian’s article is titled “A Race for Theory” – discuss how this title is a play on words and how it relates to her argument about what it means to create theory.
- Choose any concept from Barbara Christian’s article and explain the author’s ideas behind this concept.
Years later, in 1980s Antifa in Germany has no historical connection to the movement; it is a product of an autonomist movement in West Germany. One of the biggest antifascist campaigns in Germany in recent years was the effort to block annual Nazi rallies in the East German city of Dresden. In October 2016 Antifa campaigned on the occasion of the anniversary of reunification of Germany on 3rd of October, to protest German nationalism, and were violent in doing so. The American Antifa of the early 21st Century has been inspired by the tactics of the original German organisation. Peter Beinart writes that in the US in the late 1980 s left wing punk fans formed a group called “Anti-Racist Action” based on the theory that Americans maybe are not so familiar with the term fascism (The Atlantic, 2017). According to Mark Bray, the author of The Antifa Handbook these activists gained popularity and tried to attract youth with alternative bands in the 90s so that others cannot recruit those people. The motto of Antifa activists was “we go where they go” in order to disrupt any event where the opposition were holding events. Contemporary Antifa is using the same tactics of disruption, by protesting against free speech when there are members of the alt right who want to hold a speech, like at Berkeley with Milo Yiannopulous. Ideology of Antifa Antifa is anarchist yet also communist in its ideology, puritan and authoritarian. What unites both strands is opposition to capitalism, conservatism and traditional, individualist western values. Antifa has been considered to be a counter culture since it has started as a group and a movement since the 1920s and it has appeared yet and yet again in accordance with the political environment. Antifa arises whenever the conservative government is in power, and it is an ideology which struggles against a conservative and capitalist government. The roots of Antifa have often seemed to merge with communism and the Democratic Party of the respective country it emerged in, like the US Democratic Party in America, or the German Democratic Party in Germany; and it has had a great impact on the ideology of the existing political groups it allied itself with. From what is found in the articles, videos, the mind of an Antifa member is judgemental and disdainful and is prone to labelling all opponents in the most negative way, from the viewpoint that Antifa is on the right side of history. (Bray, 2017)Most members hold the belief that they are the new counter culture, and that Trump “is literally Hitler” and everyone who disagrees with them is a “Nazi” and a “fascist”. Due to historical analogies that they often use they believe that history is repeating itself, and that they have to use force, whatever resources they have to stop the right-conservative-republicans from rising to power (Stonestreet, 2017). Because they see the conservatives as the most evil, they feel like they can legitimize their use of violence, they believe that force is legitimate and good in itself. In the Anti-Fascist Handbook it is clear that Antifa has a goal of overthrowing right wing politics and capita>GET ANSWER