- You will write a 2,400–2,700-word research-based paper in current Turabian format.
- It will focus on the importance of biblical theology and how it strengthens the Christian’s ability to articulate key doctrinal beliefs.
- You must incorporate content from the Theological Statements (I will do this).
- The paper must include at least 10 references including course textbooks; you will have 5 from your bibliography you can use.
Please use these 5 as part of the 10 references.
Hamilton, James M. Jr. “What is Biblical Theology?” Illinois: Crossway, 2001.
Graeme Goldsworthy, According to Plan: The Unfolding Revelation of God in the Bible, (IVP, 2015), https://www.mywsb.com
Lawrence, Michael. “Biblical Theology in the Life of the Church,” A Guide for Ministry. Wheaton: Crossway, (2010).
Broughton, Geoff. “The significance of biblical theology,” [online]. St Mark’s Review, No. 226, (Nov 2013).
Schillebeeckx, Edward. “Revelation and Theology,” Vol. 1. (London: Sheed & Ward, 1987)
- The paper must rely on biblical texts, but the Bible does not count as one of the 10 and must not be listed in the bibliography.
- You may list the version of the Bible you are using as a footnote at the initial use of a biblical citation, but no other bibliographic information is needed for it.
- The title page and bibliography are not used to determine word count.
|Criteria||Levels of Achievement|
|Structure||11 to 13 points
Each paragraph contains one major idea that connects the topic to pertinent academic sources and biblical texts. Paragraph transitions are clear and maintain flow of thought. Conclusion is objective and rises from content.
|8 to 10 points
Each paragraph contains one major idea that connects the topic to pertinent academic sources and biblical texts. Paragraph transitions are somewhat clear and maintain an average flow of thought. Conclusion is somewhat objective and rises from content.
|4 to 7 points
Each paragraph does not contain one major idea that connects the topic to pertinent academic sources and biblical texts. Paragraph transitions and flow of thought are vague. Conclusion is unclear and not derived from course content.
|0 to 3 points
The paragraphs do not contain a major idea that connects the topic to pertinent academic sources and biblical texts. Paragraph transitions are unclear and do not maintain flow of thought. Conclusion is not objective and does not rise from content.
|Content||11 to 13 points
The final paper is 1,200–2,000 words. Understanding of the subject is evident. There is substantive, strong development of ideas and concepts. Assertions are clearly supported and/or illustrated.
|8 to 10 points
The final paper is 1,000–1,999 words. Understanding of the subject is mostly evident. There is substantive, strong development of ideas and concepts. Assertions are supported and/or illustrated.
|4 to 7 points
The final paper is 500–999 words. Understanding of the subject is unclear. There is development of ideas and concepts. Assertions are slightly supported and/or illustrated.
|0 to 3 points
The final paper is 0–500 words. Understanding of the subject is not evident. There is no development of ideas and concepts. Assertions are not clearly supported and/or illustrated.
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.