International marketers sometimes have to face various trade barriers. Describe the reasons why the governments protect the local industries with restrictions when new markets are emerging or penetrating?
one area of feminised jobs, but also from a lack of career advancement that is within the power of organisations in society. According to Wolf and Fligstein, the sexual differences in power in the work setting ‘are an important factor generating inequality in earnings between men and women’ (1979, 235). This highlights how ideas about the femininity of women drive contemporary workforce standards, as women are expected to perform work according to their performance of heterosexuality. Further, the long-term disadvantages that come from gendered assumptions and the subsequent gender pay gap will be critically analysed. Not only does the gender pay gap lead to disadvantage for women in social, financial and personal situations, but also leads to lifetime disadvantage. Lifetime disadvantage refers to the factors that lead to ‘the retirement ills of many women’ (Bishom-Rapp & Sargeant, 2016, p. 190). That is, the risks that women face from being unequally paid. As women go into retirement, they are at risk of experiencing the critical impact of the gender pay gap. Women subsequently earn less over their lifetime, which results in lower superannuation, and a risk of poverty in old age. In 2012, 21.7% of women aged over 65 were at risk of poverty, whereas only 16.3% of men were likely to experience poverty (Bishom-Rapp & Sargeant, 2016, p. 116). Gender inequality in the workforce not only reflects current social position and power inequalities, but it also leads to detrimental outcomes of lifetime disadvantage for women. TACKLING THE GENDER BINARY Although gendered assumptions continue to drive workplaces, there are ways to tackle this blatant discrimination that women face in employment. According to leading gender theorist, Judith Butler, there is a means to challenge heteronormativity, which forms the foundation for the gender pay gap. Butler believes that gender is reiterated through regulatory practices, and is culturally constructed through the heterosexual matrix (Butler, 1990, p.9). The heterosexual matrix refers to the re-stabilisation of gender through women repeatedly engaging in feminised behaviours and appearances (Butler, 1990). Therefore, the sexed body only gains significance from its constant reification and institutionalised endorsement within society. As the gender binary requires engagement by society, an inherent instability within this social construct can be made out (Butler, 1990, p11). Because of this, women are able to exploit gendered assumptions through their constant reinforcement, as it becomes obvious to those looking to challenge it. Women in the workforce have already taken charge in this area, as the overall gender pay gap in full-time employment decreased in 2015 to 2016 (WGEA, 2017,p.15). By viewing sex and gender as something culturally, historically and socially constructed, society will be able to define themselves with their own limitations and freedoms by challenging these constructed ideals. In particular, the feminist movement will make significant headway in this area through challenging normative heterosexuality. This effect will reverberate in the workforce, as the structures seeking to restrain women from challenging hegemonic masculinity will destabilise. The gender pay gap, in particular, has improved among men and women in trades including machinery operating and building, decreasing by 4% in terms of total remuneration between 2015 and 2016 (WGEA, 2017, p. 16). This is indicative of the progress being made by women in challenging the preconceived capabilities of their bodies. By going beyond the behaviours of gender that limit their capabilities, they are able to challenge both gender constructs and inequality in the workforce. As McDowell suggests, women’s sexed bodies are threatening in the workplace for the very reason that they are not meant to be there -‘They challenge the order of things’ (1995,p.80). Not only have women challenged order through entering the workforce; they have also challenged the very structured foundation of the order. This provides women with the means to break through the metaphorical glass ceilings that limit equality in the workplace. Additionally, if women persevered with obtaining both equality and equity, it would ‘liberate not only women but also human personalit>GET ANSWER